Added-value processing of ‘algae waste': 2nd quarterly report

Project report


Trzcinski, Antoine, Hernandez, Ernesto and Webb, Colin. 2010. Added-value processing of ‘algae waste': 2nd quarterly report. United Kingdom. University of Manchester.
Title

Added-value processing of ‘algae waste': 2nd quarterly report

Report TypeProject report
AuthorsTrzcinski, Antoine (Author), Hernandez, Ernesto (Author) and Webb, Colin (Author)
Institution of OriginManchester University
Number of Pages152
Year2010
PublisherUniversity of Manchester
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
Abstract

Background - This second report provides an update of information and interim results for a two year study being conducted at the Satake Centre for Grain Process Engineering in the University of Manchester, investigating the feasibility of producing value-added products from algae.

Project Aim - To examine in detail and optimise the production of generic fermentation feedstocks from algae wastes and evaluate the feasibility of producing a range of potential end-products (in particular ethanol and algae nutrients).

Achievements to Date - Process development and design: The materials under investigation were two feedstocks of microalgae sent by Cellana on 13th January 2010 (samples 1323 and 1584). Currently, the algae are harvested by centrifugation or spray-drying, and lipids are then extracted using hexane. At UoM, various process scenarios to produce glucose were tested: fermentation with Aspergillus awamori, fermentation with indigenous microorganisms, acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. All the data accumulated with the different strategies were used to develop flowsheets that can help to estimate the ethanol production for each scenario.

The characterisation work enables to conclude that both samples differ by their lipids and other chemicals content. In this work, a variety of indigenous microbes were also isolated from both samples, and such microbes now form part of a culture collection.

Pre-treatment of unextracted samples: As part of process development and design, various techniques were tested to disrupt the algae in order to facilitate access to lipids and carbohydrates without the utilization of hexane. The use of a physical and biological disruption method to break open the cells would have the advantage to be a cleaner process as no chemical will be involved. Consequently, the lipids could be harvested by skimming the oil layer at the surface of the cell suspension. Several cell disruption methods were tested: mortar and pestle, bead mill, liquid nitrogen, autoclaving, microwaving, falling number hammer mill, ultrasound and French press. It was found that ultrasound and the French press were the most effective methods. Further tests are needed to determine if an oil layer can be obtained at the surface after these 2 pre-treatments.

From the process point of view, the acid hydrolysis treatment involves simultaneous cell-disruption and saccharification, which can take place in the same unit. However, lipids and proteins degradation could occur.
There were no benefits associated with the use of A. awamori for breaking the cells open, releasing lipids or glucose, and converting carbohydrates into glucose.

Fermentation process: The highest glucose production was achieved with indigenous microbes degrading ultrasound-treated and untreated samples. Sample 1584 had higher lipid and carbohydrates content and gave greater glucose production during indigenous fermentation (55 mg of glucose per gram of sample).

Since the best performances (in terms of glucose) were obtained with the indigenous microbes degrading the raw sample, it can be concluded that no further pre-treatment is required before the microbial conversion step.

Depolymerisation process: A detailed account of experiments with commercial enzyme is presented in this part, whereby algal samples with or without cell-disruption treatment were used as feedstock in parallel experiments to enzymatically produce glucose. Although enzyme addition increases glucose production its contribution is thought to be low.

Combined fermentation-depolymerisation process (indigenous microorganisms and added enzyme) with and without treatment:
Sample 1584 produced the highest levels of glucose and the best results were observed when the indigenous microbes were mixed with enzymes. After 100 hours of running the experiment, glucose was not consumed and remained approximately constant until the end of the experiment.

With the best combination of processes, about 27% of total carbohydrates in sample 1323 was converted into glucose whereas, in the case of the disrupted sample 1584, about 55% was converted into glucose by indigenous microbes and 60% by combining indigenous microbes and enzymes. This investigation gives grounds to decide if commercial enzymes and cell-disruption pre-treatment is economically interesting.

In the case of fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis, a pre-treatment step might be required to facilitate the conversion of carbohydrates. This should be followed by the depolymerisation of carbohydrates into simple sugars.
Preliminary results with samples D09 and D10: Progress has been gained working with the new unextracted feedstocks sent by Cellana (D09 and 10) on February. The Characterisation work is undergoing and it has been found that glucose can be produced from D09 and D10 when treated with indigenous microorganisms from samples 1323 and 1584. Noteworthy is to mention that D09 and D10 also contain their own indigenous microbes but, in this case, such microbes produced and consumed glucose.

Culturing the oleaginous yeast R. toruloides: This aims at growing oleaginous yeast to extract the oil. In one project, the algae by-product will serve as substrate to grow the yeast whereas a synthetic substrate will be used in the second project. The plan of actions and the time to achieve the goals is presented (Gantt chart).

Literature review: An introduction to algae is presented and is followed by a review on the properties of the algal biomass. An account of the cultivation methods and productivity is also given. Besides, there is a summary of upstream processes employed to eliminate water from the harvested algae. Finally, the review presents an account of the extraction and purification of added-value products such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane and other bioactive compounds and fine chemicals.

Other deliverables and task on hold: A culture collection of known microbes is now available at UoM. Another task that has been put on hold is the growth of Nannochlorepsis sp, which was the model chosen for growing microalgae with the fermentation products from A. awamori and A. oryzae.

Overall progress - More realistic numbers in terms of ethanol production have been obtained and are presented in the process development and design spreadsheets. Further improvements will be gained with new experimental results.
The search for a physical disruption method is now concluded. More tests are needed to determine if an oil layer can be obtained at the surface after ultrasound or French press treatment.

Samples 1323 and 1584 have been characterised and therefore this task is finished. On the other hand, chemical and biological methods to produce glucose have been tested in samples 1323 and 1584. Similar work has been done with D09 and D10 and the results reported herein show that glucose can be produced from these samples when treated with indigenous microbes from 1323 and 1584.

The depolymerisation process of 1323 and 1584 is finished but it still needs to be deployed to treat algae D09 and D10. Enzyme, indigenous microbes and a combination of both need to be studied in the disrupted D09 and D10. There is now a plan of actions and timing for growing oleaginous yeast with algae or a synthetic medium.

ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310603. Fermentation
310605. Industrial microbiology (incl. biofeedstocks)
310602. Bioprocessing, bioproduction and bioproducts
Public Notes

Confidential.

Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Manchester, United Kingdom
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Performance of A-stage process treating combined municipal-industrial wastewater
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Wang, Chong, Zhang, Dongqing, Ang, Wui Seng, Lin, Li Leonard, Niwa, Terutake, Fukuzaki, Yasuhiro and Ng, Wun Jern. 2017. "Performance of A-stage process treating combined municipal-industrial wastewater." Water Science and Technology. 75 (1), pp. 228-238. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.511
Enhancing sewage sludge anaerobic 're-digestion' with combinations of ultrasonic, ozone and alkaline treatments
Tian, Xinbo, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Leonard Li and Ng, Wun Jern. 2016. "Enhancing sewage sludge anaerobic 're-digestion' with combinations of ultrasonic, ozone and alkaline treatments." Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 4 (4), pp. 4801-4807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.10.032
Characterization and biodegradability of sludge from a high rate A-stage contact tank and B-stage membrane bioreactor of pilot-scale AB system treating municipal wastewaters
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Ganda, Lily, Kunacheva, Chinagarn, Zhang, Dong Qing, Lin, Li Leonard, Tao, Guihe, Lee, Yingjie and Ng, Wun Jern. 2016. "Characterization and biodegradability of sludge from a high rate A-stage contact tank and B-stage membrane bioreactor of pilot-scale AB system treating municipal wastewaters." Water Science and Technology. 74 (7), pp. 1716-1725. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.346
Anaerobic digestion of starch-polyvinyl alcohol biopolymer packaging: biodegradability and environmental impact assessment
Guo, M., Trzcinski, A. P., Stuckey, D. C. and Murphy, R. J.. 2011. "Anaerobic digestion of starch-polyvinyl alcohol biopolymer packaging: biodegradability and environmental impact assessment." Bioresource Technology. 102 (24), pp. 11137-11146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.061
Disinfection performance of adsorption using graphite adsorbent coupled with electrochemical regeneration for various microorganisms present in water
Hussain, S. N., Trzcinski, A. P., Asghar, H. M. A., Sattar, H., Brown, N. W. and Roberts, E. P. L.. 2016. "Disinfection performance of adsorption using graphite adsorbent coupled with electrochemical regeneration for various microorganisms present in water." Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 44, pp. 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.09.009
Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge
Tian, Xinbo, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Li leonard and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge." Journal of Environmental Sciences. 33, pp. 29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2015.01.003
Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Liu, Yu. 2014. "Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste." Biofuel Research Journal. 1 (3), pp. 98-105.
Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds
Zhang, Dongqing, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Kunacheva, Chinagarn, Stuckey, David C., Liu, Yu, Tan, Soon Keat and Ng, Wun Jern. 2016. "Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds." Water Research. 102, pp. 594-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.06.059
Treatment of municipal solid waste leachate using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor at mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures: analysis of recalcitrants in the permeate using GC-MS
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2010. "Treatment of municipal solid waste leachate using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor at mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures: analysis of recalcitrants in the permeate using GC-MS." Water Research. 44 (3), pp. 671-680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.09.043
Performance of a three-stage membrane bioprocess treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and evolution of its archaeal and bacterial ecology
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ray, Michael J. and Stuckey, David C.. 2010. "Performance of a three-stage membrane bioprocess treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and evolution of its archaeal and bacterial ecology." Bioresource Technology. 101 (6), pp. 1652-1661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.075
Post-treatment of the permeate of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ofoegbu, Nkechi and Stuckey, David C.. 2011. "Post-treatment of the permeate of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 46 (13), pp. 1539-1548. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2011.609402
Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2011. "Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste." Waste Management. 31 (7), pp. 1480-1487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.02.015
Enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Salakkama, Apilak, Trzcinski, Antoine P., Bakir, Ufuk and Webb, Colin. 2012. "Enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production." Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 50 (6-7), pp. 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2012.03.004
Determination of the hydrolysis constant in the biochemical methane potential test of municipal solid waste
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2012. "Determination of the hydrolysis constant in the biochemical methane potential test of municipal solid waste." Environmental Engineering Science. 29 (9), pp. 848-854. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2011.0105
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating landfill leachate at low temperatures
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2012. "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating landfill leachate at low temperatures." Environmental Engineering Science. 29 (4), pp. 219-226. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2011.0003
Anaerobic toxicity assay of plasticisers
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ofoegbu, Nkechi and Stuckey, David. 2012. "Anaerobic toxicity assay of plasticisers." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 47 (8), pp. 1082-1086. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.668029
A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Hernandez, Ernesto and Webb, Colin. 2012. "A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products." Bioresource Technology. 116, pp. 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.078
Microbial oil produced from biodiesel by-products could enhance overall production
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine and Webb, Colin. 2013. "Microbial oil produced from biodiesel by-products could enhance overall production." Bioresource Technology. 129, pp. 650-654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.152
Metabolomic profiling of Rhodosporidium toruloides grown on glycerol for carotenoid production during different growth phases
Lee, Jaslyn Jie Lin, Chen, Liwei, Shi, Jiahua, Trzcinski, Antoine and Chen, Wei-Ning. 2014. "Metabolomic profiling of Rhodosporidium toruloides grown on glycerol for carotenoid production during different growth phases." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62 (41), pp. 10203-10209. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf502987q
Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment
Tian, Xinbo, Wang, Chong, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Leonard and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment." Chemosphere. 140, pp. 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.007
Enzyme production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ng, Wun Jern and Liu, Yu. 2014. "Enzyme production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept." Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5 (6), pp. 903-917. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-014-9311-x
Identification of recalcitrant compounds in a pilot-scale AB system: an adsorption (A) stage followed by a biological (B) stage to treat municipal wastewater
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Ganda, Lily, Ni, Annie Soh Yan, Kunacheva, Chinagarn, Zhang, Dong Qing, Lin, Li Leonard, Tao, Guihe, Lee, Yingjie and Ng, Wun Jern. 2016. "Identification of recalcitrant compounds in a pilot-scale AB system: an adsorption (A) stage followed by a biological (B) stage to treat municipal wastewater." Bioresource Technology. 206, pp. 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.01.048
Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2016. "Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor." Bioresource Technology. 204, pp. 17-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.12.074
Effect of sparging rate on permeate quality in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2016. "Effect of sparging rate on permeate quality in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)." Journal of Environmental Management. 168, pp. 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.11.055
Enhancing the hydrolysis and methane production potential of mixed food waste by an effective enzymatic pretreatment
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Liu, Yu. 2015. "Enhancing the hydrolysis and methane production potential of mixed food waste by an effective enzymatic pretreatment." Bioresource Technology. 183, pp. 47-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.033
Platform chemicals production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Liu, Yu. 2015. "Platform chemicals production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept." Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 90 (8), pp. 1364-1379. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4551
Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge
Tian, Xinbo, Wang, Chong, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Leonard and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge." Journal of Environmental Sciences. 29, pp. 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2014.07.024
Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2015. "Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions." Bioresource Technology. 185, pp. 441-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.016
Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Tian, Xinbo, Wang, Chong, Lin, Leonard Li and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 50 (2), pp. 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2014.975561
Combined ultrasonication and enzymatic pretreatment of waste activated sludge prior to anaerobic digestion
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Wang, Chong, Tian, Xinbo, Abdul Majid, Maszenan Bin and Ng, Wun Jern. 2014. Combined ultrasonication and enzymatic pretreatment of waste activated sludge prior to anaerobic digestion. International Application No.: PCT/SG2014/000131
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures (PowerPoint)
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2010. "Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures (PowerPoint)." 12th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD12) 2010. Guadalajara, Mexico
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2010. "Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures." 12th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD12) 2010. Guadalajara, Mexico
Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (PowerPoint)
Trzcinski, A. and Stuckey, D.. 2008. "Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (PowerPoint)." 5th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops (ISAD-SW&EC 2008). Hammamet, Tunisia 25 - 28 May 2008
Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (Paper)
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2008. "Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (Paper)." 5th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops (ISAD-SW&EC 2008). Hammamet, Tunisia 25 - 28 May 2008
Batch treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2007. "Batch treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process." 11th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD11): Bioenergy for our Future. Brisbane, Australia 23 - 27 Sep 2007