Direct Sugarcane Bagasse to oil (SB2O)

Project report


Trzcinski, Antoine, Hernandez, Ernesto and Webb, Colin. 2011. Direct Sugarcane Bagasse to oil (SB2O). United Kingdom. University of Manchester.
Title

Direct Sugarcane Bagasse to oil (SB2O)

Report TypeProject report
AuthorsTrzcinski, Antoine (Author), Hernandez, Ernesto (Author) and Webb, Colin (Author)
Institution of OriginManchester University
Number of Pages161
Year2011
PublisherUniversity of Manchester
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
Abstract

Herein we present an update on the project activities carried out at UoM since April 2011. Shell is interested in the direct conversion of sugarcane bagasse into oil by culturing microbes.

We were tasked to grow yeast that is able to accumulate a relatively high proportion of oil in its body. For achieving such goal, Shell commissioned the present work to The Satake Centre for Grain Processes Engineering (SCGPE), given its R&D expertise in applying bioprocesses to produce added-value products from lignocellulosic biomass.

In the previous report, it was shown that it is possible to grow oleaginous yeast in fresh pressed bagasse. We showed images of huge oily vesicles inside the yeast in suboptimal experiments. The yeast was able to grow presumably because freshly pressed bagasse still contains soluble sugars that are usually degraded by microbes thriving in the environment.

Recently, we tested a strategy to produce a suspension rich in R. toruloides but free of undesirable particles. This approach was followed to prevent costly downstream separation processes of the bagasse-yeast mixture. It was found that it is possible to biodegrade a fraction of the bagasse and produce soluble nutrients that can be diffused through a membrane into another reactor where R. toruloides grow.

We also tested an approach to grow molds on bagasse in solid state fermentation to release soluble nutrients. This system was leached with the suspension from a submerged state system containing R. toruloides. The leachate was recovered back into the submerged state system where R. toruloides was intended to grow but did not.

In submerged estate fermentation, we found that a given combination of fungal strains was able to grow on fresh bagasse. This was assumed given the fact that a ring of biomass grew at the edge of the water surface spread on the flask by orbital shaking. An assumption was later reinforced by an optic light microscopy study.

The aforementioned ring of biomass was daily homogenised into the bagasse suspension, which was subjected to direct methanolysis for the production of FAME’S. Butyric acid methyl ester (C4:0) was presumably found in seven out of eight combinations. On the other hand, cis-8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid methyl ester (C20:3n3) was found in the system inoculated with T. reesei and R. toruloides. Since the samples were too diluted, it was not possible to have peaks that could be related to a FAME profile with a good degree of confidence.

Chemical treatment with sulphuric acid revealed that about 60% of the bagasse was made of cellulose and hemicellulose. This pre-treatment was very efficient to obtain sugars but also contained inhibitors such that the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was not able to grow.

Biological experiments (solid state fermentation) were also carried out and we observed that our fungi (Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus awamori) grew but consumed the sugars (maximum yield: 8 mg/g dry bagasse). The same conclusion was drawn when bagasse was supplemented with N, K, P and Mg. When bagasse was supplemented with sucrose (~3.4% w/w) to simulate freshly extracted sugarcane all the microorganisms (fungi and yeast) consumed the sugars. When bagasse was supplemented with sucrose and yeast extract our fungi consumed the sugars.

About 120 mg/g dry bagasse using commercial enzymes without autoclaving, but particles smaller than 500 microns were required to obtain these results.

The second part of the report deals with fresh sugarcanes obtained from Malaysia. Tests were carried out on unextracted as well as extracted sugarcanes (=bagasse). Solid state fermentation (SSF) was carried out to measure the cellulase activity that can be obtained. A low cellulase activity in the range 0.1 – 0.7 FPU/g dry substrate (gds) was found, and the state of the sugarcanes (unextracted or extracted sugarcanes) and the particle size (large, i.e. non sieved fibers after cutting the sugarcanes with a machete and particles smaller than 2 mm) had no influence. In contrast, when yeast extract was supplemented, a cellulase activity in the range 1-1.2 FPU/gds could be obtained indicating that sugarcanes and bagasse are deficient in nitrogen.

Using commercial enzymes on unextracted sugarcanes a sugar yield of up to 600 mg/g dry sugarcanes could be obtained compared to a yield in the range 350-450 mg/g using only water for the extraction. This suggested that a simultaneous extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis would be interesting. The use of commercial enzymes on extracted sugarcanes (bagasse) provided up to 250 mg/g additional sugars compared to nothing if the bagasse is disposed of. A better enzymatic hydrolysis was observed when the material remained wet (unextracted and extracted sugarcanes).

Alkali pre-treatment improved the enzymatic attack of cellulose and xylose by commercial enzymes giving rise to sugar yields of 700 to 1000 mg sugars/g dry bagasse.
However, our fungi could not produce cellulases on alkali pre-treated bagasse.

At the end of this report, we present a summary of the different strategies used to address the problem of hydrolysing lignocellulosic materials as well as a compendium of relevant abstracts.

ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310603. Fermentation
310605. Industrial microbiology (incl. biofeedstocks)
310602. Bioprocessing, bioproduction and bioproducts
Public Notes

Confidential.

Byline AffiliationsUniversity of Manchester, United Kingdom
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Hussain, S. N., Trzcinski, A. P., Asghar, H. M. A., Sattar, H., Brown, N. W. and Roberts, E. P. L.. 2016. "Disinfection performance of adsorption using graphite adsorbent coupled with electrochemical regeneration for various microorganisms present in water." Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 44, pp. 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2016.09.009
Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge
Tian, Xinbo, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Li leonard and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Impact of ozone assisted ultrasonication pre-treatment on anaerobic digestibility of sewage sludge." Journal of Environmental Sciences. 33, pp. 29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2015.01.003
Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Liu, Yu. 2014. "Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste." Biofuel Research Journal. 1 (3), pp. 98-105.
Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds
Zhang, Dongqing, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Kunacheva, Chinagarn, Stuckey, David C., Liu, Yu, Tan, Soon Keat and Ng, Wun Jern. 2016. "Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds." Water Research. 102, pp. 594-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.06.059
Treatment of municipal solid waste leachate using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor at mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures: analysis of recalcitrants in the permeate using GC-MS
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2010. "Treatment of municipal solid waste leachate using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor at mesophilic and psychrophilic temperatures: analysis of recalcitrants in the permeate using GC-MS." Water Research. 44 (3), pp. 671-680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.09.043
Performance of a three-stage membrane bioprocess treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and evolution of its archaeal and bacterial ecology
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ray, Michael J. and Stuckey, David C.. 2010. "Performance of a three-stage membrane bioprocess treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and evolution of its archaeal and bacterial ecology." Bioresource Technology. 101 (6), pp. 1652-1661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.075
Post-treatment of the permeate of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ofoegbu, Nkechi and Stuckey, David C.. 2011. "Post-treatment of the permeate of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 46 (13), pp. 1539-1548. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2011.609402
Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2011. "Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste." Waste Management. 31 (7), pp. 1480-1487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.02.015
Enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Salakkama, Apilak, Trzcinski, Antoine P., Bakir, Ufuk and Webb, Colin. 2012. "Enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production." Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 50 (6-7), pp. 337-342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2012.03.004
Determination of the hydrolysis constant in the biochemical methane potential test of municipal solid waste
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2012. "Determination of the hydrolysis constant in the biochemical methane potential test of municipal solid waste." Environmental Engineering Science. 29 (9), pp. 848-854. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2011.0105
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating landfill leachate at low temperatures
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2012. "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating landfill leachate at low temperatures." Environmental Engineering Science. 29 (4), pp. 219-226. https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2011.0003
Anaerobic toxicity assay of plasticisers
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ofoegbu, Nkechi and Stuckey, David. 2012. "Anaerobic toxicity assay of plasticisers." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 47 (8), pp. 1082-1086. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.668029
A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products
Trzcinski, Antoine P., Hernandez, Ernesto and Webb, Colin. 2012. "A novel process for enhancing oil production in algae biorefineries through bioconversion of solid by-products." Bioresource Technology. 116, pp. 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.078
Microbial oil produced from biodiesel by-products could enhance overall production
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine and Webb, Colin. 2013. "Microbial oil produced from biodiesel by-products could enhance overall production." Bioresource Technology. 129, pp. 650-654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.152
Metabolomic profiling of Rhodosporidium toruloides grown on glycerol for carotenoid production during different growth phases
Lee, Jaslyn Jie Lin, Chen, Liwei, Shi, Jiahua, Trzcinski, Antoine and Chen, Wei-Ning. 2014. "Metabolomic profiling of Rhodosporidium toruloides grown on glycerol for carotenoid production during different growth phases." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62 (41), pp. 10203-10209. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf502987q
Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment
Tian, Xinbo, Wang, Chong, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Leonard and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Interpreting the synergistic effect in combined ultrasonication-ozonation sewage sludge pre-treatment." Chemosphere. 140, pp. 63-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.007
Enzyme production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P., Ng, Wun Jern and Liu, Yu. 2014. "Enzyme production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept." Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5 (6), pp. 903-917. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-014-9311-x
Identification of recalcitrant compounds in a pilot-scale AB system: an adsorption (A) stage followed by a biological (B) stage to treat municipal wastewater
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Ganda, Lily, Ni, Annie Soh Yan, Kunacheva, Chinagarn, Zhang, Dong Qing, Lin, Li Leonard, Tao, Guihe, Lee, Yingjie and Ng, Wun Jern. 2016. "Identification of recalcitrant compounds in a pilot-scale AB system: an adsorption (A) stage followed by a biological (B) stage to treat municipal wastewater." Bioresource Technology. 206, pp. 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.01.048
Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2016. "Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor." Bioresource Technology. 204, pp. 17-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.12.074
Effect of sparging rate on permeate quality in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2016. "Effect of sparging rate on permeate quality in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)." Journal of Environmental Management. 168, pp. 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.11.055
Enhancing the hydrolysis and methane production potential of mixed food waste by an effective enzymatic pretreatment
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Liu, Yu. 2015. "Enhancing the hydrolysis and methane production potential of mixed food waste by an effective enzymatic pretreatment." Bioresource Technology. 183, pp. 47-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.033
Platform chemicals production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept
Kiran, Esra Uckun, Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Liu, Yu. 2015. "Platform chemicals production from food wastes using a biorefinery concept." Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 90 (8), pp. 1364-1379. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4551
Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge
Tian, Xinbo, Wang, Chong, Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Lin, Leonard and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge." Journal of Environmental Sciences. 29, pp. 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2014.07.024
Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions
Trzcinski, Antoine P. and Stuckey, David C.. 2015. "Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions." Bioresource Technology. 185, pp. 441-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.016
Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Tian, Xinbo, Wang, Chong, Lin, Leonard Li and Ng, Wun Jern. 2015. "Combined ultrasonication and thermal pre-treatment of sewage sludge for increasing methane production." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. 50 (2), pp. 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2014.975561
Combined ultrasonication and enzymatic pretreatment of waste activated sludge prior to anaerobic digestion
Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota, Wang, Chong, Tian, Xinbo, Abdul Majid, Maszenan Bin and Ng, Wun Jern. 2014. Combined ultrasonication and enzymatic pretreatment of waste activated sludge prior to anaerobic digestion. International Application No.: PCT/SG2014/000131
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures (PowerPoint)
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2010. "Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures (PowerPoint)." 12th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD12) 2010. Guadalajara, Mexico
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2010. "Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of archaeal and bacterial populations in a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (SAMBR) treating landfill leachate at low temperatures." 12th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD12) 2010. Guadalajara, Mexico
Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (PowerPoint)
Trzcinski, A. and Stuckey, D.. 2008. "Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (PowerPoint)." 5th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops (ISAD-SW&EC 2008). Hammamet, Tunisia 25 - 28 May 2008
Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (Paper)
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2008. "Continuous treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process (Paper)." 5th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Wastes and Energy Crops (ISAD-SW&EC 2008). Hammamet, Tunisia 25 - 28 May 2008
Batch treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process
Trzcinski, A. P. and Stuckey, D. C.. 2007. "Batch treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic two-stage membrane process." 11th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (AD11): Bioenergy for our Future. Brisbane, Australia 23 - 27 Sep 2007