Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations

Article


Denham, Josh and Spencer, Sarah J.. 2020. "Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations." American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism. 319 (2), pp. E320-E329. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2020
Article Title

Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the intercellular communication for exercise-induced adaptations

ERA Journal ID14579
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsDenham, Josh (Author) and Spencer, Sarah J. (Author)
Journal TitleAmerican Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Journal Citation319 (2), pp. E320-E329
Number of Pages10
Year2020
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN0193-1849
1522-1555
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2020
Web Address (URL)https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00215.2020
Abstract

Complex organisms rely heavily on intercellular communication. The rapidly expanding field of extracellular vesicle biology has made it clear that the necessary intercellular communication occurs partly through their paracrine and endocrine actions. Extracellular vesicles are nanoscale lipid membranes (30 - 2,000 nm in diameter) that shuttle functional biological material between cells. They are released from numerous tissues and are isolated from nearly all biofluids and cell cultures. Although their biogenesis, cell targeting, and functional roles are incompletely understood, they appear to have crucial roles in physiological and disease processes. Their enormous potential to serve as sensitive biomarkers of disease and also new therapeutic interventions for diseases have gained them considerable attention in recent years. Regular physical exercise training confers systemic health benefits and consequently prevents many age-related degenerative diseases. Many of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the salubrious effects of exercise are known, yet a common underlying mechanism potentially responsible for the holistic health benefits of exercise has only recently been explored (i.e., via extracellular vesicle transport of biological material). Here, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicle biology before outlining the current evidence on the capacity for a single bout and chronic exercise to elicit changes in extracellular vesicle content and modulate their molecular cargo (e.g., small RNAs). We highlight areas for future research and emphasize their potential utility as biomarkers and therapeutic strategies of disease and its prevention.

KeywordsExercise adaptations; Exercise training; Gene; Small RNA; Tissue cross-talk
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020310599. Genetics not elsewhere classified
420702. Exercise physiology
Byline AffiliationsRoyal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT)
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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