High-resolution two-photon polymerization: the most versatile technique for the fabrication of microneedle arrays

Article


Faraji Rad, Zahra, Prewett, Philip and Davies, Graham. 2021. "High-resolution two-photon polymerization: the most versatile technique for the fabrication of microneedle arrays." Microsystems and Nanoengineering. 7 (1), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00298-3
Article Title

High-resolution two-photon polymerization: the most versatile technique for the fabrication of microneedle arrays

ERA Journal ID213691
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsFaraji Rad, Zahra (Author), Prewett, Philip (Author) and Davies, Graham (Author)
Journal TitleMicrosystems and Nanoengineering
Journal Citation7 (1), pp. 1-17
Article Number71
Number of Pages17
Year2021
PublisherNature Publishing Group
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN2055-7434
2096-1030
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00298-3
Web Address (URL)https://www.nature.com/articles/s41378-021-00298-3
Abstract

Microneedle patches have received much interest in the last two decades as drug/vaccine delivery or fluid sampling systems for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. Microneedles are manufactured using a variety of additive and subtractive micromanufacturing techniques. In the last decade, much attention has been paid to using additive manufacturing techniques in both research and industry, such as 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, inkjet printing, and two-photon polymerization (2PP), with 2PP being the most flexible method for the fabrication of microneedle arrays. 2PP is one of the most versatile and precise additive manufacturing processes, which enables the fabrication of arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) prototypes directly from computer-aided-design (CAD) models with a resolution down to 100 nm. Due to its unprecedented flexibility and high spatial resolution, the use of this technology has been widespread for the fabrication of bio-microdevices and bio-nanodevices such as microneedles and microfluidic devices. This is a pioneering transformative technology that facilitates the fabrication of complex miniaturized structures that cannot be fabricated with established multistep manufacturing methods such as injection molding, photolithography, and etching. Thus, microstructures are designed according to structural and fluid dynamics considerations rather than the manufacturing constraints imposed by methods such as machining or etching processes. This article presents the fundamentals of 2PP and the recent development of microneedle array fabrication through 2PP as a precise and unique method for the manufacture of microstructures, which may overcome the shortcomings of conventional manufacturing processes.

KeywordsAdditive manufacturing process; Computer aided design models; Conventional manufacturing; High spatial resolution; Manufacturing constraint; Manufacturing techniques; Micromanufacturing techniques; Two photon polymerization
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020401401. Additive manufacturing
400303. Biomechanical engineering
400308. Medical devices
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
University of New South Wales
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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