The Pharmacy Community Apgar Questionnaire: a modified Delphi technique to develop a rural pharmacist recruitment and retention tool

Article


Terry, Daniel R, Peck, Blake, Hills, Danny, Bishop, Jaclyn, Kirschbaum, Mark, Obamiro, Kehinde O, Phan, Hoang, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David. 2022. "The Pharmacy Community Apgar Questionnaire: a modified Delphi technique to develop a rural pharmacist recruitment and retention tool." Rural and Remote Health. 22 (4), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH7347
Article Title

The Pharmacy Community Apgar Questionnaire: a modified Delphi technique to develop a rural pharmacist recruitment and retention tool

ERA Journal ID13681
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsTerry, Daniel R, Peck, Blake, Hills, Danny, Bishop, Jaclyn, Kirschbaum, Mark, Obamiro, Kehinde O, Phan, Hoang, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David
Journal TitleRural and Remote Health
Journal Citation22 (4), pp. 1-17
Number of Pages17
Year2022
PublisherJames Cook University
Place of PublicationAustralia
ISSN1445-6354
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH7347
Web Address (URL)https://www.rrh.org.au/journal/article/7347
Abstract

Introduction: An adequate healthcare workforce remains essential for the health of rural communities. Strategies to address rural health workforce challenges have often centred on the medical and nursing workforce; however, addressing the rural pharmacist workforce also remains critical as they are often the first point of contact for health advice. Initiatives have increased pharmacist supply; however, key issues such as poor attraction, recruitment, and retention to rural areas remain. The aim of this study was to support the recruitment and retention of pharmacists in rural areas of Australia through the development of the Pharmacy Community Apgar Questionnaire (PharmCAQ).
Methods: A modified Delphi technique was employed to develop the PharmCAQ. A panel of experts were purposively selected. Eight representatives were from organisations with rural experience relevant to the study including the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia, the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, the Pharmacy Guild of Australia, the Pharmacy Board of Australia, and a representative of a government health agency, who also leads a hospital pharmacy. Three additional participants included local and international academics with health policy and rural health workforce expertise. All participants participated in three separate focus groups of 45–60 minutes duration, where the review and refinement of factors that drive recruitment and retention of pharmacist were discussed. Face and content validity was achieved through the representatives, while internal consistency was achieved when the tool was piloted among 10 rural pharmacists in rural Victoria.
Results: Fifty key factors that impact the recruitment and retention of pharmacists were identified, developed and succinctly described. All factors were grouped into five classifications: (1) geographic, (2) economic and resources, (3) practice and scope of practice, (4) practice environment and (5) community practice support. After final consensus, the factors and their definitions formed the final questionnaire. Lastly, the reliability of PharmCAQ was determined, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.852.
Conclusion: While the development and use of the Apgar questionnaire for the recruitment and retention of health professionals is not a novel idea, seeking to specifically focus on pharmacists is unique. However, 10 factors were similar to factors associated with rural recruitment and retention of both physicians and nurses; they encompassed geographic, community support, and economic and resource factors. Regardless of similarities or differences between health professions in terms of recruitment and retention, as a mechanism for addressing the worsening health professional shortage currently experienced in rural areas, the PharmCAQ was developed to support the recruitment and retention of the pharmacist workforce in rural areas.

KeywordsAustralia, Community Apgar, Delphi, pharmacist, recruitment, retention, rural community.
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020420199. Allied health and rehabilitation science not elsewhere classified
Byline AffiliationsFederation University
Western Alliance, Australia
University of Tasmania
Boise State University, United States
University of North Dakota, United States
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/w452y/the-pharmacy-community-apgar-questionnaire-a-modified-delphi-technique-to-develop-a-rural-pharmacist-recruitment-and-retention-tool

Download files


Published Version
Terry, Peck, Hills et al. RRH Nov 2022.pdf
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Anyone

  • 31
    total views
  • 20
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Yoga in schools that contributes to a positive classroom atmosphere for young children and educators: a PRISMA scoping review
Martin, Beverley, Peck, Blake and Terry, Daniel. 2024. "Yoga in schools that contributes to a positive classroom atmosphere for young children and educators: a PRISMA scoping review." Frontiers in Education. 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2024.1352780
Understanding rural pharmacists’ perspectives: lived experiences and insights associated with rural recruitment and retention
Terry, Daniel R, Peck, Blake, Phan, Hoang, Hills, Danny, Bishop, Jaclyn, Kirschbaum, Mark, Obamiro, Kehinde O, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David. 2024. "Understanding rural pharmacists’ perspectives: lived experiences and insights associated with rural recruitment and retention." Rural and Remote Health. (8687), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.22605/RRH8687
Nurse-led clinics in primary health care: A scoping review of contemporary definitions, implementation enablers and barriers and their health impact
Terry, Daniel, Hills, Danny, Bradley, Cressida and Govan, Linda. 2024. "Nurse-led clinics in primary health care: A scoping review of contemporary definitions, implementation enablers and barriers and their health impact." Journal of Clinical Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.17003
Self-efficacy, grit, and rural career aspirations among early career nurses: A repeated cross-sectional study
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David. 2024. "Self-efficacy, grit, and rural career aspirations among early career nurses: A repeated cross-sectional study." BMC Nursing. 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-024-01723-4
The mechanisms of student grit at the height of a major crisis: Identifying key predictors when times get really tough
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake and Biangone, Marianne. 2024. "The mechanisms of student grit at the height of a major crisis: Identifying key predictors when times get really tough ." Nursing Open. 11 (1), p. e2069. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.2069
Young Children's Experiences with Yoga after School
Martin, Beverly, Peck, Blake and Terry, Daniel. 2023. "Young Children's Experiences with Yoga after School." Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools and Early Intervention: innovations in practice, theory, and research. 16 (2), pp. 194-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/19411243.2022.2037490
Totally devoted to you: A qualitative study examining the experiences of sacrifice among pharmacists in rural and regional areas
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake and Phan, Hoang. 2023. "Totally devoted to you: A qualitative study examining the experiences of sacrifice among pharmacists in rural and regional areas ." Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 19 (5), pp. 793-799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2023.02.014
Paediatric Emergency Asthma Presentations: Temporal Trends and Representations in Rural Australia
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake and Kloot, Kate. 2023. "Paediatric Emergency Asthma Presentations: Temporal Trends and Representations in Rural Australia ." Healthcare. 11 (24). https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11243113
An exploration of nurses’ experience following a face-to-face or web-based intervention on patient deterioration
Kim, Jeong-ah, Jones, Linda, Terry, Daniel and Connell, Cliff. 2023. "An exploration of nurses’ experience following a face-to-face or web-based intervention on patient deterioration." Healthcare. 11 (24). https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11243112
Student success strategies: Approaches to navigating and understanding the determinants of health outside the classroom
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Smith, Andrew and Gazula, Swapnali. 2023. "Student success strategies: Approaches to navigating and understanding the determinants of health outside the classroom." Innovations in Education and Teaching International. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2023.2283127
Enhancing Students’ Cultural Competency in Tertiary Health Education Using Internationalization at Home
Huang, Wai Shan Shirley, Terry, Daniel and Peck, Blake. 2023. "Enhancing Students’ Cultural Competency in Tertiary Health Education Using Internationalization at Home." Journal of Nursing Education. 62 (4), pp. 199-206. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20230208-04
Health literacy amongst children living with a long-term condition: ‘What I know and who I tell'
Peck, Blake, Bray, Lucy, Dickson, Annette, Blamires, Julie, Terry, Daniel and Carter, Bernie. 2023. "Health literacy amongst children living with a long-term condition: ‘What I know and who I tell'." Health Education Journal. 82 (5), pp. 487-504. https://doi.org/10.1177/00178969231168210
Changes in grit and psychological capital at the time of major crisis: nursing students’ perseverance, resources, and resilience
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake and Biangone, Marianne. 2023. "Changes in grit and psychological capital at the time of major crisis: nursing students’ perseverance, resources, and resilience ." International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 20 (1). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2022-0114
The experience of methamphetamine use disorder and the negative consequences of relapse – a qualitative study
Klein, Talia, Terry, Daniel and Peck, Blake. 2023. "The experience of methamphetamine use disorder and the negative consequences of relapse – a qualitative study." Journal of Addictive Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2023.2165870
The Use of an Interactive Social Simulation Tool for Adults Who Stutter: A Pilot Study
Meredith, Grant, Achterbosch, Leigh, Peck, Blake, Terry, Daniel, Dekker, Evan and Packman, Ann. 2023. "The Use of an Interactive Social Simulation Tool for Adults Who Stutter: A Pilot Study." European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education. 13 (1), pp. 187-198. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13010014
Sustaining rural pharmacy workforce understanding key attributes for enhanced retention and recruitment
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Hills, Danny, Bishop, Jaclyn, Kirschbaum, Mark, Obamiro, Kehinde, Phan, Hoang, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David. 2023. "Sustaining rural pharmacy workforce understanding key attributes for enhanced retention and recruitment." Australian Journal of Rural Health. 31 (2), pp. 218-229. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12942
Impact of dementia literacy interventions for non-health-professionals: systematic review and meta-analysis
Nguyen, Hoang, Phan, Hoang T, Terry, Daniel, Doherty, Kathleen and McInerney, Fran. 2022. "Impact of dementia literacy interventions for non-health-professionals: systematic review and meta-analysis ." Aging and Mental Health. 26 (3), pp. 442-456. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2021.1884843
Pediatric emergency asthma presentations in Southwest Victoria: a retrospective cross-sectional study 2017 to 2020
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Kloot, Kate and Hutchins, Toinette. 2022. "Pediatric emergency asthma presentations in Southwest Victoria: a retrospective cross-sectional study 2017 to 2020." Journal of Asthma. 59 (2), pp. 264-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2020.1845725
Learning on the periphery: A pilot study of an undergraduate nursing student communities of practice model
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Perkins, Alicia J. and Burgener, Wendy. 2022. "Learning on the periphery: A pilot study of an undergraduate nursing student communities of practice model." Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 12 (11), pp. 18-27. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v12n11p18
Outcomes of a pilot evaluation of a group urotherapy programme for children with complex elimination disorders: An Australian experience
Peck, Blake, Terry, Daniel, Martin, Benita, Mathews, Belinda and Green, Andrea. 2022. "Outcomes of a pilot evaluation of a group urotherapy programme for children with complex elimination disorders: An Australian experience." Journal of Child Health Care. 26 (3), pp. 438-447. https://doi.org/10.1177/13674935211022537
Group-urotherapy for children with complex elimination disorder: An Australian study
Peck, Blake, Terry, Daniel, Martin, Benita, Mathews, Belinda and Green, Andrea. 2022. "Group-urotherapy for children with complex elimination disorder: An Australian study." International Journal of Urological Nursing. 16 (3), pp. 211-217. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijun.12320
Practice nurses’ communication with people living with type 2 diabetes: A scoping review
Hills, Sharon, Terry, Daniel, Gazula, Swapnali and Browning, Colette. 2022. "Practice nurses’ communication with people living with type 2 diabetes: A scoping review." Patient Education and Counseling. 105 (8), pp. 2664-2670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2022.03.024
The influence of probiotics on gastrointestinal tract infections among children attending childcare: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ahmed, Hafiz H., Peck, Blake and Terry, Daniel. 2022. "The influence of probiotics on gastrointestinal tract infections among children attending childcare: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Journal of Applied Microbiology. 132 (3), pp. 1636-1651. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.15374
"Thank You for Listening": An Exploratory Study Regarding the Lived Experience and Perception of Medical Errors Among Those Who Receive Care
Terry, Daniel, Kim, Jeong-ah, Glibert, Julia, Jang, Sunny and Nguyen, Hoang. 2022. ""Thank You for Listening": An Exploratory Study Regarding the Lived Experience and Perception of Medical Errors Among Those Who Receive Care." International Journal of Health Services. 52 (2), pp. 292-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731419893036
Learning on the periphery: a modified Delphi study of a nursing student communities of practice model
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Perkins, Alicia J. and Burgener, Wendy. 2022. "Learning on the periphery: a modified Delphi study of a nursing student communities of practice model." International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship. 19 (1), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2021-0143
Factors contributing to the recruitment and retention of rural pharmacist workforce: a systematic review
Terry, Daniel, Phan, Hoang, Peck, Blake, Hills, Danny, Kirschbaum, Mark, Bishop, Jaclyn, Obamiro, Kehinde, Ha, Hoang, Nguyen, Hoang, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David. 2021. "Factors contributing to the recruitment and retention of rural pharmacist workforce: a systematic review ." BMC Health Services Research. 21 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07072-1
The Rural Nursing Workforce Hierarchy of Needs: Decision-Making concerning Future Rural Healthcare Employment
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Baker, Ed and Schmitz, David. 2021. "The Rural Nursing Workforce Hierarchy of Needs: Decision-Making concerning Future Rural Healthcare Employment." Health Care: the journal of delivery science and innovation. 9 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091232
The Socioeconomic Characteristics of Childhood Injuries in Regional Victoria, Australia: What the Missing Data Tells Us
Peck, Blake, Terry, Daniel and Kloot, Kate. 2021. "The Socioeconomic Characteristics of Childhood Injuries in Regional Victoria, Australia: What the Missing Data Tells Us." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18 (13), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137005
The Kids Are Alright: Outcome of a Safety Programme for Addressing Childhood Injury in Australia
Peck, Blake and Terry, Daniel. 2021. "The Kids Are Alright: Outcome of a Safety Programme for Addressing Childhood Injury in Australia." European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education. 11 (2), pp. 546-556. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11020039
Self-Regulation for and of Learning: Student Insights for Online Success in a Bachelor of Nursing Program in Regional Australia
Peck, B., smith, a., Terry, Daniel and Porter, J.. 2021. "Self-Regulation for and of Learning: Student Insights for Online Success in a Bachelor of Nursing Program in Regional Australia ." Nursing Reports. 11 (2), pp. 364-372. https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep11020035
Nurses’ Experience of Caring for Patients with Delirium: Systematic Review and Qualitative Evidence Synthesis
Thomas, Nissy, Coleman, Mardhie and Terry, Daniel. 2021. "Nurses’ Experience of Caring for Patients with Delirium: Systematic Review and Qualitative Evidence Synthesis ." Nursing Reports. 11 (1), pp. 164-174. https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep11010016
Twice-Daily Moisturizer Application for Skin Tear Prevention among Older Adults in Acute Care
Mornane, Carolyn, Peck, Blake, Terry, Daniel and Ryan, Michael. 2021. "Twice-Daily Moisturizer Application for Skin Tear Prevention among Older Adults in Acute Care." Advances in Skin and Wound Care: the journal for wound prevention and healing. 34 (2), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000725180.14180.da
The Historic to Contemporary Challenges among International Medical Graduates Seeking to Practise in Australia
Terry, Daniel, Ha, Hoang, Peck, Blake and Le, Quynh. 2021. "The Historic to Contemporary Challenges among International Medical Graduates Seeking to Practise in Australia." Health and History. 23 (1), pp. 61-78. https://doi.org/10.5401/healthhist.23.1.0061
Traversing the Funambulist’s Fine Line between Nursing and Male Identity: A Systematic Review of the Factors that Influence Men as They Seek to Navigate the Nursing Profession
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Carden, Clarissa, Perkins, Alicia J. and Smith, Andrew. 2020. "Traversing the Funambulist’s Fine Line between Nursing and Male Identity: A Systematic Review of the Factors that Influence Men as They Seek to Navigate the Nursing Profession ." European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education. 10 (3), pp. 691-703. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10030051
Factors That Impact Measures of Grit among Nursing Students: A Journey Emblematic of the Koi Fish
Terry, Daniel and Peck, Blacke. 2020. "Factors That Impact Measures of Grit among Nursing Students: A Journey Emblematic of the Koi Fish." European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education. 10 (2), pp. 564-574. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10020041
Academic and clinical performance among nursing students: What's grit go to do with it?
Terry, Daniel and Peck, Blake. 2020. "Academic and clinical performance among nursing students: What's grit go to do with it?" Nurse Education Today. 88, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104371
Occupational Self-Efficacy and Psychological Capital Amongst Nursing Students: A Cross Sectional Study Understanding the Malleable Attributes for Success
Terry, Daniel, Peck, Blake, Smith, Andrew and Nguyen, Hoang. 2020. "Occupational Self-Efficacy and Psychological Capital Amongst Nursing Students: A Cross Sectional Study Understanding the Malleable Attributes for Success." European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education. 10 (1), pp. 159-172. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10010014
Television as a Career Motivator and Education Tool: A Final-Year Nursing Student Cohort Study
Terry, Daniel and Peck, Blake. 2020. "Television as a Career Motivator and Education Tool: A Final-Year Nursing Student Cohort Study." European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education. 10 (1), pp. 346-357. https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe10010026
Chronic ill health in a regional Victoria setting: A 13-year comparison
Glenister, Kristen, Bourke, Lisa, Terry, Daniel and Simmons, David. 2019. "Chronic ill health in a regional Victoria setting: A 13-year comparison." Australian Journal of Rural Health. 27 (6), pp. 527-534. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12565
Communication training and its effects on carer and care-receiver outcomes in dementia settings: A systematic review
Nguyen, Hoang, Terry, Daniel, Phan, Hoang, Vickers, James and McInerney, Fran. 2019. "Communication training and its effects on carer and care-receiver outcomes in dementia settings: A systematic review ." Journal of Clinical Nursing. 28 (7-8), pp. 1050-1069. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.14697
Acute circulatory complications in people with diabetes mellitus type 2: How admission varies between urban and rural Victoria
Gardiner, Gardiner, Robins, Shalley and Terry, Daniel. 2019. "Acute circulatory complications in people with diabetes mellitus type 2: How admission varies between urban and rural Victoria." Australian Journal of Rural Health. 27 (1), pp. 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12459
Health professional students' rural placement satisfaction and rural practice intentions: A national cross-sectional survey
Smith, Tony, Sutton, Keith, Sabrina, Pit, Muyambi, Kuda, Terry, Daniel, Farthing, Annie, Courtney, Claire and Cross, Merylin. 2018. "Health professional students' rural placement satisfaction and rural practice intentions: A national cross-sectional survey." Australian Journal of Rural Health. 26 (1), pp. 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12375
Competing food consumption discourses and proper gendered behaviour among over 50s: are you really what you eat?
Malatzky, Christina, Terry, Daniel, Bourke, Lisa, Glenister, Kristen and Ervin, Kaye. 2018. "Competing food consumption discourses and proper gendered behaviour among over 50s: are you really what you eat?" Journal of Research for Consumers. 32, pp. 1-31.
Asthma hospitalisation trends from 2010 to 2015: variation among rural and metropolitan Australians
Terry, Daniel, Robins, Shalley, Gardiner, Samantha, Ruby, Wyett and Islam, Md Rafiqul. 2017. "Asthma hospitalisation trends from 2010 to 2015: variation among rural and metropolitan Australians." BMC Public Health. 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4704-y