Dr Timothy Cowan


Dr Timothy Cowan
NameDr Timothy Cowan
Email Addresstimothy.cowan@unisq.edu.au
Job TitleSenior Research Fellow (Climate Prediction)
QualificationsBSc(Hons) Melb, PhD UNSW
DepartmentCentre for Applied Climate Sciences (Research)
ORCIDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8376-4879
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Biography

Tim is a Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for Applied Climate Sciences at the University of Southern Queensland and is embedded within the Seasonal Climate Processes team at the Bureau of Meteorology. Prior to the Bureau, Tim spent a decade at CSIRO, researching Indo-Pacific variability and its influence on Australia's climate, and then completed a post-doc at the University of Edinburgh focusing on early 20th century climate extremes.

Tim's current research is predominantly funded by Meat and Livestock Australia Donor Company through the Northern Australia Climate Program (NACP), and is aimed at developing prototype forecast products in ACCESS-S to help the northern cattle grazing industry better manage drought and climate risks. Tim's main work has centred on testing the skill of hindcasts and forecasts in ACCESS-S1 for the Northern Rainfall Onset product, and developing the Bureau's multi-week rainfall burst product. Currently, he is developing an Australia-wide cattle heat load forecast.

Employment

PositionOrganisationFromTo
Research Projects OfficerCSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere20052015
Postdoctoral Research AssociateSchool of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh20152018
Research FellowCentre for Applied Climate Sciences, University of Southern Queensland20182020

Expertise

Monsoon, El Nino Southern Oscillation, sub-seasonal prediction, Madden-Julian Oscillation, heat waves, drought

Fields of Research

  • 370101. Adverse weather events
  • 370103. Atmospheric aerosols
  • 370105. Atmospheric dynamics
  • 370108. Meteorology
  • 370201. Climate change processes
  • 370202. Climatology

Professional Membership

Professional MembershipYear
Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
BSc(Hons)
Melb
2004
PhD
UNSW
2015

Current Supervisions

Research TitleSupervisor TypeLevel of StudyCommenced
Improved evapotranspiration estimates in grazed woodlands using flux tower, satellite remote sensing, machine learning and modelling approaches.Principal SupervisorDoctoral2021
 An analysis of the agricultural, environmental, social and climatic benefits available via a broader adoption of Cannabis in Australia including hypothetical modelling for legalisation, licensing, and distribution. Associate SupervisorDoctoral2019

Completed Supervisions

Research TitleSupervisor TypeLevel of StudyCompleted
Interannual and decadal variability of Australian monsoon rainfall and variability in the Pacific OceanPrincipal SupervisorDoctoral2023
Project titleDetailsYear
Filling fundamental gaps in pasture prediction in drought-impacted savanna woodlandsThis is a DCAP3 funded project that aims to fill gaps in knowledge of competition for water between trees and grasses to enable graziers to better manage areas with woody vegetation while adapting to Queensland’s drought prone and highly variable climate. The project will contribute to improved estimates of evapotranspiration, evaporative stress index, flash drought, green date, green cover, pasture biomass and long-term carrying capacity in woody vegetation sites, with field measured data used to ground truth modelling and satellite derived datasets by 31 December 2025. 2022
DateNameAwarding organisationUnderpinning research
2022Bureau Excellence Award as part of the Forewarned is Forearmed project team Bureau of Meteorology
2021 Ranked #637 in 1000 most influential climate scientists in the world Reuters
2016Uwe Radok award for the best Australian PhD thesis in meteorology, oceanography, glaciology or climatology Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
2013University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre best student paper University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Centre
2007Look Out!!! CSIRO Strategic Excellence Award CSIRO
2007CSIRO Executive Study award CSIRO
2022Keynote talk at AMOS Annual Conference, Adelaide, 1 December 2022 Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
2017Invited talk at AMOS Annual Conference, Canberra, 8 February 2017 Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
2013Invited talk at Australian Property Institute Rural Queensland Conference, Toowoomba, 22-23 March 2013 Australian Property Institute
2012Invited talk at The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR) 6th annual workshop: Understanding and Prediction of Monsoon Weather and Climate, Melbourne, 12-15 November 2012Bureau of Meteorology
2011Invited talk at LTO/SCSIO, Guangzhou, 21 October 2011LTO/SCSIO
2011Invited talk at Beijing Climate Change Conference, Beijing, 18-20 October 2011Chinese Academy of Sciences and CSIRO
2009Invited talk at Australian Climate Change Science Program breakfast at Greenhouse 2009 conference, Perth, Western Australia, 26 March 2009CSIRO

The south-east Australia drought: Possible causes

Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2008. "The south-east Australia drought: Possible causes." Water: Official journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association. 35 (5), pp. 95-97.

Impacts of environmental feedbacks on the production of a Central Queensland beef enterprise in a future climate

An-Vo, Duc-Anh, Cobon, David, Owens, Jo, Liedloff, Adam, Cowan, Tim and Power, Scott. 2024. "Impacts of environmental feedbacks on the production of a Central Queensland beef enterprise in a future climate." Agricultural Systems. 214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2023.103838

Climatology and composite evolution of flash drought over Australia and its vegetation impacts

Nguyen, Hanh, Wheeler, Mattew C., Otkin, Jason A., Nguyen-Huy, Thong and Cowan, Timothy. 2023. "Climatology and composite evolution of flash drought over Australia and its vegetation impacts." Journal of Hydrometeorology. 24 (6), p. 1087–1101. https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-22-0033.1

Variability and long-term change in Australian monsoon rainfall: A review

Heidemann, Hanna, Cowan, Tim, Henley, Benjamin J., Ribbe, Joachim, Freund, Mandy and Power, Scott. 2023. "Variability and long-term change in Australian monsoon rainfall: A review ." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: WIREs Climate Change. 14 (3). https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.823

Madden-Julian Oscillation Impacts on Australian Temperatures and Extremes

Marshall, Andrew G., Wheeler, Mathew C. and Cowan, Tim. 2023. "Madden-Julian Oscillation Impacts on Australian Temperatures and Extremes." Journal of Climate. 36 (2), pp. 335-357. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0413.1

The Combined Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on Australian Rainfall

Cowan, Tim, Wheeler, Mathew C. and Marshall, Andrew G.. 2023. "The Combined Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on Australian Rainfall." Journal of Climate. 36 (2), pp. 313-334. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-22-0357.1

The Northern Australia Climate Program: Overview and Selected Highlights

Lavender, Sally L., Cowan, Tim, Hawcroft, Matthew, Wheeler, Matthew C., Jarvis, Chelsea, Cobon, David, Nguyen, Hanh, Hudson, Debra, Sharmila, S., Marshall, Andrew G., de Burgh-Day, Catherine, Milton, Sean, Stirling, Alison, Alves, Oscar and Hendon, Harry H.. 2022. "The Northern Australia Climate Program: Overview and Selected Highlights." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 103 (11), pp. E2492-E2505. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0309.1

Advances in the Subseasonal Prediction of Extreme Events: Relevant Case Studies across the Globe

Domeisen, Daniela I. V., White, Christopher J., Afargan-Gerstman, Hilla, Munoz, Angel G., Janiga, Matthew A., Vitart, Frederic, Wulff, C. Ole, Antoine, Salome, Ardilouze, Constantin, Batte, Lauriane, Bloomfield, Hannah C., Brayshaw, David J., Camargo, Suzana J., Charlton-Perez, Andrew, Collins, Dan, Cowan, Tim, del Mar Chaves, Maria, Ferranti, Laura, Gomez, Rosario, ..., Tian, Di. 2022. "Advances in the Subseasonal Prediction of Extreme Events: Relevant Case Studies across the Globe." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 103 (6), pp. E1473-E1501. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0221.1

Skill of ACCESS-S2 in predicting rainfall bursts over Australia

Cowan, Tim, Wheeler, Matthew C., Hudson, Debra, de Burgh-Day, Catherine, Griffiths, Morwenna and Young, Griffith. 2022. Skill of ACCESS-S2 in predicting rainfall bursts over Australia. Australia. Bureau of Meteorology.

Multi‑week prediction of livestock chill conditions associated with the northwest Queensland floods of February 2019

Cowan, Tim, Wheeler, Matthew C., de Burgh-Day, Catherine, Nguyen, Hanh and Cobon, David. 2022. "Multi‑week prediction of livestock chill conditions associated with the northwest Queensland floods of February 2019." Scientific Reports. 12 (1), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09666-z

Subseasonal to Seasonal Climate Forecasts Provide the Backbone of a Near-Real-Time Event Explainer Service

Hope, Pandora, Zhao, Mei, Abhik, S., Tolhurst, Gen, McKay, Roseanna C., Rauniyar, Surendra P., Bettio, Lynette, Ramchurn, Avijeet, Lim, Eun-Pa, Pepler, Acacia S, Cowan, Tim and Watkins, Andrew B.. 2022. "Subseasonal to Seasonal Climate Forecasts Provide the Backbone of a Near-Real-Time Event Explainer Service." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 103 (3), pp. S7-S13. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0253.1

Forecasting Northern Australian Summer Rainfall Bursts Using a Seasonal Prediction System

Cowan, Tim, Wheeler, Matthew C., Sharmila, S., Narsey, Sugata and de Burgh-Day, Catherine. 2021. "Forecasting Northern Australian Summer Rainfall Bursts Using a Seasonal Prediction System." Weather and Forecasting. 37 (1), pp. 23-44. https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-21-0046.1

The Influence of Interannual and Decadal Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Variability on Australian Monsoon Rainfall

Heidemann, Hanna, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim, Henley, Benjamin J., Pudmenzky, Christa, Stone, Roger and Cobon, David H.. 2022. "The Influence of Interannual and Decadal Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Variability on Australian Monsoon Rainfall." Journal of Climate. 35 (1), pp. 425-444. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-21-0264.1

The benefits of ensemble prediction for forecasting an extreme event: the Queensland floods of February 2019

Hawcroft, Matt, Lavender, Sally, Copsey, Dan, Milton, Sean, Rodriguez, Jose, Tennant, Warren, Webster, Stuart and Cowan, Tim. 2021. "The benefits of ensemble prediction for forecasting an extreme event: the Queensland floods of February 2019." Monthly Weather Review. 149, pp. 2391-2408. https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-20-0330.1

The relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Australian monsoon rainfall on decadal time-scales

Heidemann, H., Joachim Ribbe, Cowan, T., Henley, B., Pudmenzky, C., Stone, R. and Cobon, D.. 2021. "The relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Australian monsoon rainfall on decadal time-scales." 23rd EGU General Assembly. 19 - 30 Apr 2021 https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10482

Impacts of Low-Frequency Internal Climate Variability and Greenhouse Warming on El Nino–Southern Oscillation

Ng, Benjamin, Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim and Bi, Daohua. 2021. "Impacts of Low-Frequency Internal Climate Variability and Greenhouse Warming on El Nino–Southern Oscillation." Journal of Climate. 34 (6), pp. 2205-2218. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0232.1

Ocean and land forcing of the record-breaking Dust Bowl heatwaves across central United States

Cowan, Tim, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Schurer, Andrew, Tett, Simon F. B., Vautard, Robert, Yiou, Pascal, Jezequel, Aglae, Otto, Friederike E. L., Harrington, Luke J. and Ng, Benjamin. 2020. "Ocean and land forcing of the record-breaking Dust Bowl heatwaves across central United States." Nature Communications. 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16676-w

Improving the seasonal prediction of Northern Australian rainfall onset to help with grazing management decisions

Cowan, Tim, Stone, Roger, Wheeler, Matthew C. and Griffiths, Morwenna. 2020. "Improving the seasonal prediction of Northern Australian rainfall onset to help with grazing management decisions." Climate Services. 19, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cliser.2020.100182

Present-day greenhouse gases could cause more frequent and longer Dust Bowl heatwaves

Cowan, Tim, Indorf, Sabine, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Harrington, Luke J. and Otto, Friederike E. L.. 2020. "Present-day greenhouse gases could cause more frequent and longer Dust Bowl heatwaves." Nature Climate Change. 10 (6), pp. 505-510. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0771-7

Insights from CMIP6 for Australia's future climate

Grose, M. R., Narsey, S., Delage, F. P., Dowdy, A. J., Bador, M., Boschat, G., Chung, C., Kajtar, J. B., Rauniyar, S., Freund, M. B., Lyu, K., Rashid, H., Zhang, X., Wales, S., Trenham, C., Holbrook, N. J., Cowan, T., Alexander, L., Arblaster, J. M. and Power, S.. 2020. "Insights from CMIP6 for Australia's future climate." Earth's Future. 8 (5). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EF001469

Causes of climate change over the historical record

Hegerl, Gabriele C., Bronnimann, Stefan, Cowan, Tim, Friedman, Andrew R., Hawkins, Ed, Iles, Carley, Muller, Wolfgang, Schurer, Andrew and Undorf, Sabine. 2019. "Causes of climate change over the historical record." Environmental Research Letters. 14 (12), pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab4557

Forecasting the extreme rainfall, low temperatures, and strong winds associated with the northern Queensland floods of February 2019

Cowan, T., Wheeler, M. C., Alves, O., Narsey, S., de Burgh-Day, C., Griffiths, M., Jarvis, C., Cobon, D. H. and Hawcroft, M. K.. 2019. "Forecasting the extreme rainfall, low temperatures, and strong winds associated with the northern Queensland floods of February 2019." Weather and Climate Extremes. 26, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2019.100232

Disentangling the causes of the 1816 European year without a summer

Schurer, Andrew P., Hegerl, Gabriele C., Luterbacher, Jurg, Bronnimann, Stefan, Cowan, Tim, Tett, Simon F. B., Zanchettin, Davide and Timmreck, Claudia. 2019. "Disentangling the causes of the 1816 European year without a summer." Environmental Research Letters. 14 (094019), pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab3a10

Circulation analogues and uncertainty in the time‑evolution of extreme event probabilities: evidence from the 1947 Central European heatwave

Harrington, Luke J., Otto, Friederike E. L., Cowan, Tim and Hegerl, Gabriele C.. 2019. "Circulation analogues and uncertainty in the time‑evolution of extreme event probabilities: evidence from the 1947 Central European heatwave." Climate Dynamics. 53 (3-4), pp. 2229-2247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04820-2

Using the evaporative stress index to monitor flash drought in Australia

Nguyen, Hanh, Wheeler, Matthew C., Otkin, Jason A., Cowan, Tim, Frost, Andrew and Stone, Roger. 2019. "Using the evaporative stress index to monitor flash drought in Australia." Environmental Research Letters. 14 (6), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab2103

Influence of internal climate variability on Indian Ocean Dipole properties

Ng, Benjamin, Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim and Bi, Daohua. 2018. "Influence of internal climate variability on Indian Ocean Dipole properties." Scientific Reports. 8 (1), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31842-3

Was the cold European winter of 2009/10 modified by anthropogenic climate change? An attribution study

Christiansen, Bo, Alvarez-Castro, Carmen, Christidis, Nikolaos, Ciavarella, Andrew, Colfescu, Ioana, Cowan, Timothy, Eden, Jonathan, Hauser, Mathias, Hempelmann, Nils, Klehmet, Katharina, Lott, Fraser, Nangini, Cathy, van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan, Orth, Rene, Stott, Peter, Tett, Simon, Vautard, Robert, Wilcox, Laura and Yiou, Pascal. 2018. "Was the cold European winter of 2009/10 modified by anthropogenic climate change? An attribution study." Journal of Climate. 31 (9), pp. 3387-3410. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0589.1

The early 20th century warming: Anomalies, causes, and consequences

Hegerl, Gabriele C., Bronnimann, Stefan, Schurer, Andrew and Cowan, Tim. 2018. "The early 20th century warming: Anomalies, causes, and consequences." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: WIREs Climate Change. 9 (4). https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.522

Evaluation of the HadGEM3-A simulations in view of detection and attribution of human influence on extreme events in Europe

Vautard, Robert, Christidis, Nikolaos, Ciavarella, Andrew, Alvarez-Castro, Carmen, Bellprat, Omar, Christiansen, Bo, Colfescu, Ioana, Cowan, Tim, Doblas-Reyes, Francisco, Eden, Jonathan, Hauser, Mathias, Hegerl, Gabriele, Hempelmann, Nils, Klehmet, Katharina, Lott, Fraser, Nangini, Cathy, Orth, Rene, Radanovics, Sabine, Seneviratne, Sonia I., ..., Yiou, Pascal. 2019. "Evaluation of the HadGEM3-A simulations in view of detection and attribution of human influence on extreme events in Europe." Climate Dynamics. 52 (1-2), pp. 1187-1210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4183-6

Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the great plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl

Cowan, Tim, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Colfescu, Ioana, Bollasina, Massimo, Purich, Ariaan and Boschat, Ghyslaine. 2017. "Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the great plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl." Journal of Climate. 30 (7), pp. 2437-2461. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0436.1

On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations

Boschat, Ghyslaine, Simmonds, Ian, Purich, Purich, Cowan, Tim and Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes. 2016. "On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations." Scientific Reports. 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29599

Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves

Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S. E., White, C. J., Alexander, L. V., Argueso, D., Boschat, G., Cowan, T., Evans, J. P., Ekstrom, M., Oliver, E. C. J., Phatak, A. and Purich, A.. 2016. "Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves." Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change. 139 (1), pp. 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1650-0

Evidence for link between modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice and underestimated westerly wind changes

Purich, Ariaan, Cai, Wenju, England, Matthew H. and Cowan, Tim. 2016. "Evidence for link between modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice and underestimated westerly wind changes." Nature Communications. 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10409

Long-term streamflow trends in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin: Detecting drivers of change

Gao, Zhaoliang, Zhang, Lu, Zhang, Xiaoping, Cheng, Lei, Potter, Nick, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2016. "Long-term streamflow trends in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin: Detecting drivers of change." Hydrological Processes. 30 (9), pp. 1315-1329. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10704

Groundwater storage trends in the Loess Plateau of China estimated from streamflow records

Gao, Zhaoliang, Zhang, Lu, Cheng, Lei, Zhang, Xiaoping, Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju and Brutsaert, Wilfried. 2015. "Groundwater storage trends in the Loess Plateau of China estimated from streamflow records." Journal of Hydrology. 530, pp. 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.09.063

The Response of the Indian Ocean Dipole Asymmetry to Anthropogenic Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases

Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, Ng, Benjamin and England, Matthew. 2015. "The Response of the Indian Ocean Dipole Asymmetry to Anthropogenic Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases ." Journal of Climate. 28 (7), pp. 2564-2583. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00661.1

Atmospheric and oceanic conditions associated with Southern Australian heat waves: A CMIP5 analysis

Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Uotila, Petteri, Pezza, Alexandre, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Perkins, Sarah. 2014. "Atmospheric and oceanic conditions associated with Southern Australian heat waves: A CMIP5 analysis." Journal of Climate. 27 (20), pp. 7807-7829. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00098.1

What is driving the fast warming rate of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean?

Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2014. "What is driving the fast warming rate of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean?" OCEANS'10 IEEE Sydney. Sydney, Australia 24 - 27 May 2010 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603876

More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century

Cowan, Tim, Purich, Ariaan, Perkins, Sarah, Pezza, Alexandre, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Sadler, Katherine. 2014. "More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate. 27 (15), pp. 5851-5871. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00092.1

The association of tropical and extratropical climate modes to atmospheric blocking across southeastern Australia

Cowan, Tim, van Rensch, Peter, Purich, Ariaan and Cai, Wenju. 2013. "The association of tropical and extratropical climate modes to atmospheric blocking across southeastern Australia." Journal of Climate. 26 (19), pp. 7555-7569. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00781.1

Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia

Boschat, Ghyslaine, Pezza, Alexandre, Simmonds, Ian, Perkins, Sarah, Cowan, Tim and Purich, Ariaan. 2015. "Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia." Climate Dynamics. 44 (7-8), pp. 1823-1840. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2214-5

Did climate change-induced rainfall trends contribute to the Australian Millennium drought?

Cai, Wenju, Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, van Rensch, Peter and Weller, Weller. 2014. "Did climate change-induced rainfall trends contribute to the Australian Millennium drought?" Journal of Climate. 27 (9), pp. 3145-3168. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00322.1

Projected response of the Indian Ocean Dipole to greenhouse warming

Cai, Wenju, Zheng, Xiao-Tong, Weller, Evan, Collins, Mat, Cowan, Tim, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Yu, Weidong and Yamagata, Toshio. 2013. "Projected response of the Indian Ocean Dipole to greenhouse warming." Nature Geoscience. 6 (12), pp. 999-1007. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2009

Autumn precipitation trends over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes as simulated by CMIP5 models

Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, Min, Seung-Ki and Cai, Wenju. 2013. "Autumn precipitation trends over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes as simulated by CMIP5 models." Journal of Climate. 26 (21), pp. 8341-8356. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00007.1

Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean

Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, Purich, Ariaan, Rotstayn, Leon and England, Matthew H.. 2013. "Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean." Scientific Reports. 3. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02245

The response of the large-scale ocean circulation to 20th century Asian and non-Asian aerosols

Cowan, T. and Cai, W.. 2013. "The response of the large-scale ocean circulation to 20th century Asian and non-Asian aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (11), pp. 2761-2767. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50587

Why is the amplitude of the Indian ocean dipole overly large in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models?

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Why is the amplitude of the Indian ocean dipole overly large in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models?" Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (6), pp. 1200-1205. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50208

Southeast Australia autumn rainfall reduction: A climate-change-induced poleward shift of ocean-atmosphere circulation

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Southeast Australia autumn rainfall reduction: A climate-change-induced poleward shift of ocean-atmosphere circulation." Journal of Climate. 26 (1), pp. 189-205. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00035.1

Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: The role of subtropical dry zone expansion

Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim and Thatcher, Marcus. 2012. "Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: The role of subtropical dry zone expansion." Scientific Reports. 2. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00702

An Asymmetry in the IOD and ENSO teleconnection pathway and its impact on australian climate

Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Hendon, Harry H.. 2012. "An Asymmetry in the IOD and ENSO teleconnection pathway and its impact on australian climate." Journal of Climate. 25 (18), pp. 6318-6329. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00501.1

Annual sea surface temperature lag as an indicator of regional climate variability

Li, Chung-Leong, Bye, John A.T., Gallagher, Stephen J. and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Annual sea surface temperature lag as an indicator of regional climate variability." International Journal of Climatology. 33 (10), pp. 2309-2317. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3587

More extreme swings of the South Pacific convergence zone due to greenhouse warming

Cai, Wenju, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Borlace, Simon, Collins, Matthew, Cowan, Tim, McPhaden, Michael J., Timmermann, Axel, Power, Scott, Brown, Josephine, Menkes, Christophe, Ngari, Arona, Vincent, Emmanuel M. and Widlansky, Matthew J.. 2012. "More extreme swings of the South Pacific convergence zone due to greenhouse warming." Nature. 488 (7411), pp. 365-369. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11358

Influence of global-scale variability on the subtropical ridge over Southeast Australia

Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter and Cowan, Tim. 2011. "Influence of global-scale variability on the subtropical ridge over Southeast Australia." Journal of Climate. 24 (23), pp. 6035-6053. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4149.1

Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall

Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Hendon, Harry H.. 2011. "Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall." Journal of Climate. 24 (15), pp. 3910-3923. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4129.1

Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?

Cai, W., van Rensch, P., Borlace, S. and Cowan, T.. 2011. "Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?" Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (14). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047943

The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon

Cowan, T. and Cai, W.. 2011. "The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047268

Are anthropogenic aerosols responsible for the northwest Australia summer rainfall increase? A CMIP3 perspective and implications

Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Sullivan, Arnold, Ribbe, Joachim and Shi, Ge. 2011. "Are anthropogenic aerosols responsible for the northwest Australia summer rainfall increase? A CMIP3 perspective and implications." Journal of Climate. 24 (10), pp. 2556-2564. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3832.1

Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 models

Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, T.. 2011. "Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 models." Journal of Climate. 24 (6), pp. 1688-1704. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3744.1

Simulation of the Indian Ocean Dipole: a relevant criterion for selecting models for climate projections

Cai, W., Sullivan, A., Cowan, T., Ribbe, J. and Shi, G.. 2011. "Simulation of the Indian Ocean Dipole: a relevant criterion for selecting models for climate projections." Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (3), pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046242

Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact

Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Sullivan, Arnold. 2010. "Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact." Journal of Climate. 23 (18), pp. 4944-4955. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3501.1

On potential causes for an under-estimated global ocean heat content trend in CMIP3 models

Cai, W., Cowan, T., Arblaster, J. M. and Wijffels, S.. 2010. "On potential causes for an under-estimated global ocean heat content trend in CMIP3 models." Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (17). https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044399

Impacts of precipitation and temperature changes on annual streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin

Yu, Jingjie, Fu, Guobin, Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2010. "Impacts of precipitation and temperature changes on annual streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin." Water International. 35 (3), pp. 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2010.484907

Comment on "On the recent warming in the Murray-Darling Basin: Land surface interactions misunderstood" by Lockart et al

Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Braganza, Karl, Jones, David and Risbey, James. 2010. "Comment on "On the recent warming in the Murray-Darling Basin: Land surface interactions misunderstood" by Lockart et al." Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (10). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL042254

Do IPCC AR4 models produce the rainfall increase over Northwest Australia?

Shi, Ge, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim, Sullivan, Arnold and Cai, Wenju. 2010. "Do IPCC AR4 models produce the rainfall increase over Northwest Australia?" Burns, Barbara A., Davis, Clem, Kiss, Andrew E. and Taylor, John R. (ed.) 17th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society: Atmosphere, Oceans, Environment and Society. Canberra, Australia 27 - 29 Jan 2010 Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean

Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Godfrey, Stuart and Wijffels, Susan. 2010. "Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean." Journal of Climate. 23 (1), pp. 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3081.1

Climate change contributes to more frequent consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events

Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "Climate change contributes to more frequent consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (23). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040163

Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia

Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Briggs, Peter and Raupach, Michael. 2009. "Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (21). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040334

Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires

Cai, W., Cowan, T. and Raupach, M.. 2009. "Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (19). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039902

Rainfall teleconnections with indo-pacific variability in the WCRP CMIP3 models

Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, Tim. 2009. "Rainfall teleconnections with indo-pacific variability in the WCRP CMIP3 models." Journal of Climate. 22 (19), pp. 5046-5071. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2694.1

How well do IPCC-AR4 models simulate Australian rainfall teleconnections during two-consecutive positive Indian Ocean dipole events?

Sullivan, Arnold, Cai, W. and Cowan, T. D.. 2009. "How well do IPCC-AR4 models simulate Australian rainfall teleconnections during two-consecutive positive Indian Ocean dipole events?" 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .

Are declining river inflows linked to rising temperatures? A perspective from the Murray-Darling Basin

Cowan, T. D. and Cai, Wenju. 2009. "Are declining river inflows linked to rising temperatures? A perspective from the Murray-Darling Basin." 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .

Methods of assessing the performance of IPCC-AR4 models in simulating Australian rainfall teleconnections with Indo-Pacific climate drivers

Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "Methods of assessing the performance of IPCC-AR4 models in simulating Australian rainfall teleconnections with Indo-Pacific climate drivers." 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .

La Niña Modoki impacts Australia autumn rainfall variability

Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "La Niña Modoki impacts Australia autumn rainfall variability." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037885

Recent unprecedented skewness towards positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurrences and its impact on Australian rainfall

Cai, W., Cowan, T. and Sullivan, A.. 2009. "Recent unprecedented skewness towards positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurrences and its impact on Australian rainfall." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037604

How rare are the 2006-2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole events? An IPCC AR4 climate model perspective

Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "How rare are the 2006-2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole events? An IPCC AR4 climate model perspective." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037982

Argo profiles a rare occurrence of three consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, 2006-2008

Cai, W., Pan, A., Roemmich, D., Cowan, T. and Guo, X.. 2009. "Argo profiles a rare occurrence of three consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, 2006-2008." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037038

A New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields

Bye, John A.T., Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2010. "A New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields ." Hurricanes and Climate Change. United States. Springer. pp. 101-120

Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?

Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?" Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034174

Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling

Shi, Ge, Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Ribbe, Joachim, Rotstayn, Leon and Dix, Martin. 2008. "Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling." Journal of Climate. 21 (12), pp. 2938-2959. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1908.1

Dynamics of late autumn rainfall reduction over southeastern Australia

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Dynamics of late autumn rainfall reduction over southeastern Australia." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (9). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033727

Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (7). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033390

An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections

Shi, G., Ribbe, J., Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2008. "An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (2), p. L2072. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032436

Impacts of increasing anthropogenic aerosols on the atmospheric circulation trends of the Southern Hemisphere: An air-sea positive feedback

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2007. "Impacts of increasing anthropogenic aerosols on the atmospheric circulation trends of the Southern Hemisphere: An air-sea positive feedback." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (23). https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031706

Anthropogenic aerosol forcing and the structure of temperature trends in the southern Indian Ocean

Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Dix, Martin, Rotstayn, Leon, Ribbe, Joachim, Shi, Ge and Wijffels, Susan. 2007. "Anthropogenic aerosol forcing and the structure of temperature trends in the southern Indian Ocean." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (14), p. L14611. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030380

Multidecadal variability in the transmission of ENSO signals to the Indian Ocean

Shi, G., Ribbe, J., Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2007. "Multidecadal variability in the transmission of ENSO signals to the Indian Ocean." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (9), p. L09706. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029528

Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2007. "Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing." Journal of Climate. 20 (4), pp. 681-693. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4028.1

A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research

Shi, Sue, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2007. A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research. Toowoomba, Australia. Joachim Ribbe.

A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research

Shi, Sue, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2007. "A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.

SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction?

Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2006. "SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction?" Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (24). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028037

Pan-oceanic response to increasing anthropogenic aerosols: Impacts on the Southern Hemisphere oceanic circulation

Cai, W., Bi, D., Church, J., Cowan, T., Dix, M. and Rotstayn, L.. 2006. "Pan-oceanic response to increasing anthropogenic aerosols: Impacts on the Southern Hemisphere oceanic circulation." Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (21). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027513

The response of the southern annular mode, the east Australian current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming

Cai, W., Shi, G., Cowan, T., Bi, D. and Ribbe, J.. 2005. "The response of the southern annular mode, the east Australian current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming." Geophysical Research Letters. 32 (23), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024701

Large-scale vertical momentum, kinetic energy and moisture fluxes in the antarctic sea-ice region

Simmonds, Ian, Rafter, Anthony, Cowan, Timothy, Watkins, Andrew B. and Keay, Kevin. 2005. "Large-scale vertical momentum, kinetic energy and moisture fluxes in the antarctic sea-ice region." Boundary-Layer Meteorology: an international journal of physical and biological processes in the atmospheric boundary layer. 117 (1), pp. 149-177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-004-5939-6