Insights from CMIP6 for Australia's future climate

Article


Grose, M. R., Narsey, S., Delage, F. P., Dowdy, A. J., Bador, M., Boschat, G., Chung, C., Kajtar, J. B., Rauniyar, S., Freund, M. B., Lyu, K., Rashid, H., Zhang, X., Wales, S., Trenham, C., Holbrook, N. J., Cowan, T., Alexander, L., Arblaster, J. M. and Power, S.. 2020. "Insights from CMIP6 for Australia's future climate." Earth's Future. 8 (5). https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EF001469
Article Title

Insights from CMIP6 for Australia's future climate

ERA Journal ID200393
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsGrose, M. R. (Author), Narsey, S. (Author), Delage, F. P. (Author), Dowdy, A. J. (Author), Bador, M. (Author), Boschat, G. (Author), Chung, C. (Author), Kajtar, J. B. (Author), Rauniyar, S. (Author), Freund, M. B. (Author), Lyu, K. (Author), Rashid, H. (Author), Zhang, X. (Author), Wales, S. (Author), Trenham, C. (Author), Holbrook, N. J. (Author), Cowan, T. (Author), Alexander, L. (Author), Arblaster, J. M. (Author) and Power, S. (Author)
Journal TitleEarth's Future
Journal Citation8 (5)
Article Numbere2019EF001469
Number of Pages24
Year2020
Place of PublicationFlorida, United States
ISSN2328-4277
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EF001469
Abstract

Outputs from new state‐of‐the‐art climate models under the Coupled Model Inter‐comparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) promise improvement and enhancement of climate change projections information for Australia. Here we focus on three key aspects of CMIP6: what is new in these models, how the available CMIP6 models evaluate compared to CMIP5, and their projections of the future Australian climate compared to CMIP5 focussing on the highest emissions scenario. The CMIP6 ensemble has several new features of relevance to policymakers and others, for example, the integrated matrix of socioeconomic and concentration pathways. The CMIP6 models show incremental improvements in the simulation of the climate in the Australian region, including a reduced equatorial Pacific cold tongue bias, slightly improved rainfall teleconnections with large‐scale climate drivers, improved representation of atmosphere and ocean extreme heat events, as well as dynamic sea level. However, important regional biases remain, evident in the excessive rainfall over the Maritime Continent and rainfall pattern biases in the nearby tropical convergence zones. Projections of Australian temperature and rainfall from the available CMIP6 ensemble broadly agree with those from CMIP5, except for a group of CMIP6 models with higher climate sensitivity and greater warming and increase in some extremes after 2050. CMIP6 rainfall projections are similar to CMIP5, but the ensemble examined has a narrower range of rainfall change in austral summer in Northern Australia and austral winter in Southern Australia. Overall, future national projections are likely to be similar to previous versions but perhaps with some areas of improved confidence and clarity.

ANZSRC Field of Research 2020370201. Climate change processes
370105. Atmospheric dynamics
370202. Climatology
Byline AffiliationsCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
Australian Bureau of Meteorology
University of Melbourne
University of Tasmania
Centre for Applied Climate Sciences
Monash University
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Power, Scott and Colman, Rob. 2006. "Multi-year predictability in a coupled general circulation model." Climate Dynamics. 26 (2-3), pp. 247-272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-005-0055-y
STOIC: A study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean regions
Davey, M. K., Huddleston, M., Sperber, K. R., Braconnot, P., Bryan, F., Chen, D., Colman, R. A., Cooper, C., Cubasch, U., Delecluse, P., DeWitt, D., Fairhead, L., Flato, G., Gordon, C., Hogan, T., Ji, M., Kimoto, M., Kitoh, A., Knutson, T. R., ..., Zebiak, S. E.. 2002. "STOIC: A study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean regions." Climate Dynamics. 18 (5), pp. 403-420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-001-0188-6
The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models
Covey, C., Abe-Ouchi, A., Boer, G. J., Boville, B. A., Cubasch, U., Fairhead, L., Flato, G. M., Gordon, H., Guilyardi, E., Jiang, X., Johns, T. C., Le Treut, H., Madec, G., Meehl, G. A., Miller, R., Noda, A., Power, S. B., Roeckner, E., Russell, G., ..., von Storch, J.-S.. 2000. "The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models." Climate Dynamics. 16 (10-11), pp. 775-787. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820000081
Annual mean meridional energy transport modelled by a general circulation model for present and 2 x CO2 equilibrium climates
Colman, R. A., McAvaney, B. J., Fraser, J. R. and Power, S. B.. 1994. "Annual mean meridional energy transport modelled by a general circulation model for present and 2 x CO2 equilibrium climates." Climate Dynamics. 10 (4-5), pp. 221-229. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00208989
The Predictability of Interdecadal Changes in ENSO Activity and ENSO Teleconnections
Power, Scott B., Haylock, Malcolm, Colman, Rob and Wang, Xiangdong. 2006. "The Predictability of Interdecadal Changes in ENSO Activity and ENSO Teleconnections." Journal of Climate. 19 (19), pp. 4755-4771. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3868.1
The Response of a Stochastically Forced ENSO Model to Observed Off-Equatorial Wind Stress Forcing
McGregor, Shayne, Holbrook, Neil J. and Power, Scott B.. 2009. "The Response of a Stochastically Forced ENSO Model to Observed Off-Equatorial Wind Stress Forcing." Journal of Climate. 22 (10), pp. 2512-2525. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2387.1
The Modulation of ENSO Variability in CCSM3 by Extratropical Rossby Waves
McGregor, Shayne, Gupta, Alex Sen, Holbrook, Neil J. and Power, Scott B.. 2009. "The Modulation of ENSO Variability in CCSM3 by Extratropical Rossby Waves." Journal of Climate. 22 (22), pp. 5839-5853. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2922.1
Evaluation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone in IPCC AR4 Climate Model Simulations of the Twentieth Century
Brown, Josephine R., Power, Scott B., Delage, Francois P., Colman, Robert A., Moise, Aurel F. and Murphy, Bradley F.. 2011. "Evaluation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone in IPCC AR4 Climate Model Simulations of the Twentieth Century." Journal of Climate. 24 (6), pp. 1565-1582. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3942.1
What Caused the Observed Twentieth-Century Weakening of the Walker Circulation
Power, Scott B. and Kociuba, Greg. 2011. "What Caused the Observed Twentieth-Century Weakening of the Walker Circulation." Journal of Climate. 24 (24), pp. 6501-6514. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4101.1
Consensus on Twenty-First-Century Rainfall Projections in Climate Models More Widespread than Previously Thought
Power, Scott B., Delage, Francois, Colman, Robert and Moise, Aurel. 2012. "Consensus on Twenty-First-Century Rainfall Projections in Climate Models More Widespread than Previously Thought." Journal of Climate. 25 (11), pp. 3792-3809. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00354.1
Unambiguous warming in the western tropical Pacific primarily caused by anthropogenic forcing
Wang, Guomin, Power, Scott B. and McGree, Simon. 2015. "Unambiguous warming in the western tropical Pacific primarily caused by anthropogenic forcing." International Journal of Climatology. 36 (2), pp. 933-944. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4395
Towards the prediction of multi-year to decadal climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere
Power, Scott, Saurral, Ramiro, Chung, Christine, Colman, Rob, Kharin, Viatcheslav, Boer, George, Gergis, Joelle, Henley, Benjamin, McGregor, Shayne, Arblaster, Julie, Holbrook, Neil and Liguori, Giovanni. 2017. "Towards the prediction of multi-year to decadal climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere." Past Global Changes Magazine. 25 (1), pp. 32-40. https://doi.org/10.22498/pages.25.1.32
The Northern Australia Climate Program: Overview and Selected Highlights
Lavender, Sally L., Cowan, Tim, Hawcroft, Matthew, Wheeler, Matthew C., Jarvis, Chelsea, Cobon, David, Nguyen, Hanh, Hudson, Debra, Sharmila, S., Marshall, Andrew G., de Burgh-Day, Catherine, Milton, Sean, Stirling, Alison, Alves, Oscar and Hendon, Harry H.. 2022. "The Northern Australia Climate Program: Overview and Selected Highlights." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 103 (11), pp. E2492-E2505. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0309.1
Forecasting Northern Australian Summer Rainfall Bursts Using a Seasonal Prediction System
Cowan, Tim, Wheeler, Matthew C., Sharmila, S., Narsey, Sugata and de Burgh-Day, Catherine. 2021. "Forecasting Northern Australian Summer Rainfall Bursts Using a Seasonal Prediction System." Weather and Forecasting. 37 (1), pp. 23-44. https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-21-0046.1
Towards operational predictions of the near-term climate
Kushnir, Yochanan, Scaife, Adam A., Arritt, Raymond, Balsamo, Gianpaolo, Boer, George, Doblas-Reyes, Francisco, Hawkins, Ed, Kimoto, Masahide, Kolli, Rupa Kumar, Kumar, Arun, Matei, Daniela, Matthes, Katja, Muller, Wolfgang A., O’Kane, Terence, Perlwitz, Judith, Power, Scott, Raphael, Marilyn, Shimpo, Akihiko, Smith, Doug, ..., Wu, Bo. 2019. "Towards operational predictions of the near-term climate." Nature Climate Change. 9 (2), pp. 94-101. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0359-7
Decadal climate variability simulated in a coupled general circulation model
Walland, D. J., Power, S. B. and Hirst, A. C.. 2000. "Decadal climate variability simulated in a coupled general circulation model." Climate Dynamics. 16 (2-3), pp. 201-211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820050013
Non-linear climate feedback analysis in an atmospheric general circulation model
Colman, R. A., Power, S. B. and McAvaney, B. J.. 1997. "Non-linear climate feedback analysis in an atmospheric general circulation model." Climate Dynamics. 13 (10), pp. 717-731. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820050193
Variability and decline in the number of severe tropical cyclones making land-fall over eastern Australia since the late nineteenth century
Callaghan, Jeff and Power, Scott B.. 2011. "Variability and decline in the number of severe tropical cyclones making land-fall over eastern Australia since the late nineteenth century." Climate Dynamics. 37 (3-4), pp. 647-662. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0883-2
Inter-decadal modulation of the impact of ENSO on Australia
Power, S., Casey, T., Folland, C., Colman, A. and Mehta, V.. 1999. "Inter-decadal modulation of the impact of ENSO on Australia." Climate Dynamics. 15 (5), pp. 319-324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003820050284
Atmospheric radiative feedbacks associated with transient climate change and climate variability
Colman, Robert A. and Power, Scott B.. 2010. "Atmospheric radiative feedbacks associated with transient climate change and climate variability." Climate Dynamics. 34 (7-8), pp. 919-933. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0541-8
The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index
Power, Scott B. and Kociuba, Greg. 2011. "The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index." Climate Dynamics. 37 (9-10), pp. 1745-1754. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0951-7
Nonlinear precipitation response to El Nino and global warming in the Indo-Pacific
Chung, Christine T. Y., Power, Scott B., Arblaster, Julie M., Rashid, Harun A. and Roff, Gregory L.. 2014. "Nonlinear precipitation response to El Nino and global warming in the Indo-Pacific." Climate Dynamics. 42 (7-8), pp. 1837-1856. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1892-8
A new index for variations in the position of the South Pacific convergence zone 1910/11-2011/2012
Salinger, M. J., McGree, Simon, Beucher, Florent, Power, Scott B. and Delage, Francois. 2014. "A new index for variations in the position of the South Pacific convergence zone 1910/11-2011/2012." Climate Dynamics. 43 (3-4), pp. 881-892. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2035-y
The eastward shift of the Walker Circulation in response to global warming and its relationship to ENSO variability
Bayr, Tobias, Dommenget, Dietmar, Martin, Thomas and Power, Scott B.. 2014. "The eastward shift of the Walker Circulation in response to global warming and its relationship to ENSO variability." Climate Dynamics. 43 (9-10), pp. 2747-2763. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2091-y
Modelled impact of global warming on ENSO-driven precipitation changes in the tropical Pacific
Chung, Christine T.Y. and Power, Scott B.. 2016. "Modelled impact of global warming on ENSO-driven precipitation changes in the tropical Pacific." Climate Dynamics. 47 (3-4), pp. 1303-1323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2902-9
Past and future changes to inflows into Perth (Western Australia) dams
Smith, Ian and Power, Scott. 2014. "Past and future changes to inflows into Perth (Western Australia) dams." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2, pp. 84-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.08.005
Major coastal flooding in southeastern Australia 1860-2012, associated deaths and weather systems
Callaghan, Jeff and Power, Scott B.. 2014. "Major coastal flooding in southeastern Australia 1860-2012, associated deaths and weather systems." Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal. 64 (3), pp. 183-214. https://doi.org/10.22499/2.6403.002
Precipitation response to La Nina and global warming in the Indo-Pacific
Chung, Christine T. Y. and Power, Scott B.. 2014. "Precipitation response to La Nina and global warming in the Indo-Pacific." Climate Dynamics. 43 (12), pp. 3293-3307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2105-9
Decadal climate variability in the tropical Pacific: characteristics, causes, predictability and prospects
Power, Scott, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Capotondi, Antonietta, Khodri, Myriam, Vialard, Jerome, Jebri, Beyrem, Guilyardi, Eric, McGregor, Shayne, Kug, Jong-Seong, Newman, Matthew, McPhaden, Michael J., Meehl, Gerald, Smith, Doug, Cole, Julia, Emile-Geay, Julien, Vimont, Daniel, Wittenberg, Andrew T., Collins, Mat, Kim, Geon-Il, ..., Henley, Benjamin J.. 2021. "Decadal climate variability in the tropical Pacific: characteristics, causes, predictability and prospects." Science. 374 (6563), pp. 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay9165
Climate science: expulsion from history
Power, Scott B.. 2014. "Climate science: expulsion from history." Nature. 511 (7507), pp. 38-39. https://doi.org/10.1038/511038a
Predicted chance that global warming will temporarily exceed 1.5 °C
Smith, D. M., Scaife, A. A., Hawkins, E., Bilbao, R., Boer, G. J., Caian, M., Caron, L.-P., Danabasoglu, G., Delworth, T., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Doescher, R., Dunstone, N. J., Eade, R., Hermanson, L., Ishii, M., Kharin, V., Kimoto, M., Koenigk, T., Kushnir, Y., ..., Yeager, S.. 2018. "Predicted chance that global warming will temporarily exceed 1.5 °C." Geophysical Research Letters. 45 (21), pp. 11,895-11,903. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079362
Dynamics and predictability of El Nino-Southern Oscillation: an Australian perspective on progress and challenges
Santoso, Agus, Hendon, Harry, Watkins, Andrew, Power, Scott, Hope, Pandora, Dommenget, Dietmar, England, Matthew H., Frankcombe, Leela, Holbrook, Neil J., Holmes, Ryan, Hope, Pandora, Lim, Eun-Pa, Luo, Jing-Jia, McGregor, Shayne, Neske, Sonja, Nguyen, Hanh, Pepler, Acacia, Rashid, Harun, Gupta, Alex Sen, ..., Delage, Francois. 2019. "Dynamics and predictability of El Nino-Southern Oscillation: an Australian perspective on progress and challenges." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 100 (3), pp. 403-420. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0057.1
Does soil moisture influence climate variability and predictability over Australia?
Timbal, B., Power, S., Colman, R., Viviand, J. and Lirola, S.. 2002. "Does soil moisture influence climate variability and predictability over Australia?" Journal of Climate. 15 (10), pp. 1230-1238. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1230:DSMICV>2.0.CO;2
El Nino–Southern Oscillation complexity
Timmermann, Axel, An, Soon Il, Kug, Jong Seong, Jin, Fei Fei, Cai, Wenju, Capotondi, Antonietta, Cobb, Kim M., Lengaigne, Matthieu, McPhaden, Michael J., Stuecker, Malte F., Stein, Karl, Wittenberg, Andrew T., Yun, Kyung Sook, Bayr, Tobias, Chen, Han-Ching, Chikamoto, Yoshimitsu, Dewitte, Boris, Dommenget, Dietmar, Grothe, Pamela, ..., Zhang, Xuebin. 2018. "El Nino–Southern Oscillation complexity." Nature. 559, pp. 535-545. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0252-6
A Tripole Index for the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation
Henley, Benjamin J., Gergis, Joelle, Karoly, David J., Power, Scott, Kennedy, John and Folland, Chris K.. 2015. "A Tripole Index for the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation." Climate Dynamics. 45 (11-12), pp. 3077-3090. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2525-1
A vertical wind structure that leads to extreme rainfall and major flooding in southeast Australia
Callaghan, Jeff and Power, Scott B.. 2017. "A vertical wind structure that leads to extreme rainfall and major flooding in southeast Australia." Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science. 66 (4), pp. 380-401. https://doi.org/10.22499/3.6604.002
Spatial and temporal agreement in climate model simulations of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation
Henley, Benjamin J., Meehl, Gerald, Power, Scott B., Folland, Chris K., King, Andrew D., Brown, Jaclyn N., Karoly, David J., Delage, Francois, Gallant, Ailie J. E., Freund, Mandy and Neukom, Raphael. 2017. "Spatial and temporal agreement in climate model simulations of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation." Environmental Research Letters. 12 (4), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa5cc8
Observed and projected changes in surface climate of tropical Pacific Islands
Lough, Janice, Gupta, Alex Sen, Power, Scott B., Grose, Michael R. and McGree, Simon. 2016. "Observed and projected changes in surface climate of tropical Pacific Islands." Taylor, Mary, McGregor, Andrew and Dawson, Brian (ed.) Vulnerability of Pacific island agriculture and forestry to climate change. Noumea Cedex, New Caledonia. Pacific Community. pp. 47-101
The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Nino
Collins, Mat, An, Soon-Il, Cai, Wenju, Ganachaud, Alexandre, Guilyardi, Eric, Jin, Fei Fei, Jochum, Markus, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Power, Scott, Timmermann, Axel, Vecchi, Gabe and Wittenberg, Andrew. 2010. "The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific Ocean and El Nino." Nature Geoscience. 3 (6), pp. 391-397. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo868
Inability of CMIP5 models to simulate recent strengthening of the walker circulation: implications for projections
Kociuba, Greg and Power, Scott B.. 2015. "Inability of CMIP5 models to simulate recent strengthening of the walker circulation: implications for projections." Journal of Climate. 28 (1), pp. 20-35. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00752.1
Modelled rainfall response to strong El Nino sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific
Chung, Christine T. Y. and Power, Scott B.. 2015. "Modelled rainfall response to strong El Nino sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific." Journal of Climate. 28 (8), pp. 3133-3151. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00610.1
The frequency of major flooding in coastal southeast Australia has significantly increased since the late 19th century
Power, Scott B. and Callaghan, Jeff. 2016. "The frequency of major flooding in coastal southeast Australia has significantly increased since the late 19th century." Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science. 66 (1), pp. 2-11. https://doi.org/10.22499/3.6601.002
More accurate quantification of model-to-model agreement in externally forced climatic responses over the coming century
Maher, Nicola, Power, Scott B. and Marotzke, Jochem. 2021. "More accurate quantification of model-to-model agreement in externally forced climatic responses over the coming century." Nature Communications. 12 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20635-w
Climate change projections for the Australian monsoon from CMIP6 Models
Narsey, S. Y., Brown, J. R., Colman, R. A., Delage, F., Power, S. B., Moise, A. F. and Zhang, H.. 2020. "Climate change projections for the Australian monsoon from CMIP6 Models." Geophysical Research Letters. 47 (13), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086816
ENSO-related rainfall changes over the New Guinea region
Smith, Ian, Moise, Aurel, Inape, Kasis, Murphy, Brad, Colman, Rob, Power, Scott and Chung, Christine. 2013. "ENSO-related rainfall changes over the New Guinea region." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 118 (19), pp. 10,665-10,675. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50818
The benefits of ensemble prediction for forecasting an extreme event: the Queensland floods of February 2019
Hawcroft, Matt, Lavender, Sally, Copsey, Dan, Milton, Sean, Rodriguez, Jose, Tennant, Warren, Webster, Stuart and Cowan, Tim. 2021. "The benefits of ensemble prediction for forecasting an extreme event: the Queensland floods of February 2019." Monthly Weather Review. 149, pp. 2391-2408. https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-20-0330.1
The varied impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on Pacific Island climates
Murphy, Bradley F., Power, Scott B. and McGree, Simon. 2014. "The varied impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on Pacific Island climates." Journal of Climate. 27 (11), pp. 4015-4036. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00130.1
The non-linear impact of El Nino, La Nina and the Southern Oscillation on seasonal and regional Australian precipitation
Chung, Christine T. Y. and Power, Scott B.. 2017. "The non-linear impact of El Nino, La Nina and the Southern Oscillation on seasonal and regional Australian precipitation." Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science. 67 (1), pp. 25-45. https://doi.org/10.22499/3.6701.003
Humans have already increased the risk of major disruptions to Pacific rainfall
Power, Scott B., Delage, Francois P. D., Chung, Christine T. Y., Ye, Hua and Murphy, Bradley F.. 2017. "Humans have already increased the risk of major disruptions to Pacific rainfall." Nature Communications. 8. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms14368
Multiyear variability in the Tasman Sea and impacts on Southern hemisphere climate in CMIP5 models
Chung, Christine T. Y., Power, Scott B., Santoso, Agus and Wang, Guomin. 2017. "Multiyear variability in the Tasman Sea and impacts on Southern hemisphere climate in CMIP5 models." Journal of Climate. 30 (12), pp. 4413-4427. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0862.1
Setting and smashing extreme temperature records over the coming century
Power, Scott B. and Delage, Francois P. D.. 2019. "Setting and smashing extreme temperature records over the coming century." Nature Climate Change. 9 (7), pp. 529-534. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0498-5
The role of the South Pacific in modulating Tropical Pacific variability
Chung, Christine T. Y., Power, Scott B., Sullivan, Arnold and Delage, Francois. 2019. "The role of the South Pacific in modulating Tropical Pacific variability." Scientific Reports. 9 (1), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52805-2
ENSO response to greenhouse forcing
Cai, Wenju, Santoso, Agus, Wang, Guojian, Wu, Lixin, Collins, Mat, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Power, Scott and Timmermann, Axel. 2021. "ENSO response to greenhouse forcing." McPhaden, Michael J., Santoso, Agus and Cai, Wenju (ed.) El Nino Southern Oscillation in a changing climate. United States. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 289-307
Apparent limitations in the ability of CMIP5 climate models to simulate recent multi-decadal change in surface temperature: implications for global temperature projections
Power, Scott, Delage, Francois, Wang, Guomin, Smith, Ian and Kociuba, Greg. 2017. "Apparent limitations in the ability of CMIP5 climate models to simulate recent multi-decadal change in surface temperature: implications for global temperature projections." Climate Dynamics. 49 (1-2), pp. 53-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3326-x
El Nino-Southern oscillation and associated climatic conditions around the world during the latter half of the twenty-first century
Power, Scott B. and Delage, Francois P.D.. 2018. "El Nino-Southern oscillation and associated climatic conditions around the world during the latter half of the twenty-first century." Journal of Climate. 31 (15), pp. 6189-6207. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0138.1
What can decadal variability tell us about climate feedbacks and sensitivity?
Colman, Robert and Power, Scott B.. 2018. "What can decadal variability tell us about climate feedbacks and sensitivity?" Climate Dynamics. 51 (9-10), pp. 3815-3828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4113-7
The impact of global warming and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation on seasonal precipitation extremes in Australia
Delage, Francois P. D. and Power, Scott B.. 2020. "The impact of global warming and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation on seasonal precipitation extremes in Australia." Climate Dynamics. 54 (9-10), pp. 4367-4377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05235-0
The impact of anthropogenic forcing and natural processes on past, present, and future rainfall over Victoria, Australia
Rauniyar, Surendra P. and Power, Scott B.. 2020. "The impact of anthropogenic forcing and natural processes on past, present, and future rainfall over Victoria, Australia." Journal of Climate. 33 (18), pp. 8087-8106. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0759.1
Evaluating climate models with the CLIVAR 2020 ENSO Metrics Package
Planton, Yann Y., Guilyardi, Eric, Wittenberg, Andrew T., Lee, Jiwoo, Gleckler, Peter J., Bayr, Tobias, McGregor, Shayne, McPhaden, Michael J., Power, Scott, Roehrig, Romain, Vialard, Jerome and Voldoire, Aurore. 2021. "Evaluating climate models with the CLIVAR 2020 ENSO Metrics Package." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 102 (2), pp. E193-E217. https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-d-19-0337.1
The relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Australian monsoon rainfall on decadal time-scales
Heidemann, H., Joachim Ribbe, Cowan, T., Henley, B., Pudmenzky, C., Stone, R. and Cobon, D.. 2021. "The relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Australian monsoon rainfall on decadal time-scales." 23rd EGU General Assembly. 19 - 30 Apr 2021 https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10482
Present-day greenhouse gases could cause more frequent and longer Dust Bowl heatwaves
Cowan, Tim, Indorf, Sabine, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Harrington, Luke J. and Otto, Friederike E. L.. 2020. "Present-day greenhouse gases could cause more frequent and longer Dust Bowl heatwaves." Nature Climate Change. 10 (6), pp. 505-510. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0771-7
Ocean and land forcing of the record-breaking Dust Bowl heatwaves across central United States
Cowan, Tim, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Schurer, Andrew, Tett, Simon F. B., Vautard, Robert, Yiou, Pascal, Jezequel, Aglae, Otto, Friederike E. L., Harrington, Luke J. and Ng, Benjamin. 2020. "Ocean and land forcing of the record-breaking Dust Bowl heatwaves across central United States." Nature Communications. 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16676-w
Using the evaporative stress index to monitor flash drought in Australia
Nguyen, Hanh, Wheeler, Matthew C., Otkin, Jason A., Cowan, Tim, Frost, Andrew and Stone, Roger. 2019. "Using the evaporative stress index to monitor flash drought in Australia." Environmental Research Letters. 14 (6), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab2103
Real world and tropical cyclone world. Part II: sensitivity of tropical cyclone formation to uniform and meridionally varying sea surface temperatures under aquaplanet conditions
Walsh, K. J. E., Sur, Sharmila, Thatcher, M., Wales, S., Utembe, S. and Vaughan, A.. 2020. "Real world and tropical cyclone world. Part II: sensitivity of tropical cyclone formation to uniform and meridionally varying sea surface temperatures under aquaplanet conditions." Journal of Climate. 33 (4), pp. 1473-1486. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0079.1
Real world and tropical cyclone world. Part I: high-resolution climate model verification
Sur, Sharmila, Walsh, K. J. E., Thatcher, M., Wales, S. and Utembe, S.. 2020. "Real world and tropical cyclone world. Part I: high-resolution climate model verification." Journal of Climate. 33 (4), pp. 1455-1472. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0078.1
Causes of climate change over the historical record
Hegerl, Gabriele C., Bronnimann, Stefan, Cowan, Tim, Friedman, Andrew R., Hawkins, Ed, Iles, Carley, Muller, Wolfgang, Schurer, Andrew and Undorf, Sabine. 2019. "Causes of climate change over the historical record." Environmental Research Letters. 14 (12), pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab4557
Review of tropical cyclones in the Australian region: climatology, variability, predictability, and trends
Chand, Savin S., Dowdy, Andrew J., Ramsay, Hamish A., Walsh, Kevin J. E., Tory, Kevin J., Power, Scott B., Bell, Samuel S., Lavender, Sally L., Ye, Hua and Kuleshov, Yuri. 2019. "Review of tropical cyclones in the Australian region: climatology, variability, predictability, and trends." WIREs Climate Change. 10 (5), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.602
Forecasting the extreme rainfall, low temperatures, and strong winds associated with the northern Queensland floods of February 2019
Cowan, T., Wheeler, M. C., Alves, O., Narsey, S., de Burgh-Day, C., Griffiths, M., Jarvis, C., Cobon, D. H. and Hawcroft, M. K.. 2019. "Forecasting the extreme rainfall, low temperatures, and strong winds associated with the northern Queensland floods of February 2019." Weather and Climate Extremes. 26, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2019.100232
Disentangling the causes of the 1816 European year without a summer
Schurer, Andrew P., Hegerl, Gabriele C., Luterbacher, Jurg, Bronnimann, Stefan, Cowan, Tim, Tett, Simon F. B., Zanchettin, Davide and Timmreck, Claudia. 2019. "Disentangling the causes of the 1816 European year without a summer." Environmental Research Letters. 14 (094019), pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab3a10
Circulation analogues and uncertainty in the time‑evolution of extreme event probabilities: evidence from the 1947 Central European heatwave
Harrington, Luke J., Otto, Friederike E. L., Cowan, Tim and Hegerl, Gabriele C.. 2019. "Circulation analogues and uncertainty in the time‑evolution of extreme event probabilities: evidence from the 1947 Central European heatwave." Climate Dynamics. 53 (3-4), pp. 2229-2247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-019-04820-2
Tropical cyclone track direction climatology and its intraseasonal variability in the Australian region
Lavender, Sally L. and Dowdy, Andrew J.. 2016. "Tropical cyclone track direction climatology and its intraseasonal variability in the Australian region." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 121 (22), pp. 13,236-13,249. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025562
Influence of internal climate variability on Indian Ocean Dipole properties
Ng, Benjamin, Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim and Bi, Daohua. 2018. "Influence of internal climate variability on Indian Ocean Dipole properties." Scientific Reports. 8 (1), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31842-3
Evaluation of the HadGEM3-A simulations in view of detection and attribution of human influence on extreme events in Europe
Vautard, Robert, Christidis, Nikolaos, Ciavarella, Andrew, Alvarez-Castro, Carmen, Bellprat, Omar, Christiansen, Bo, Colfescu, Ioana, Cowan, Tim, Doblas-Reyes, Francisco, Eden, Jonathan, Hauser, Mathias, Hegerl, Gabriele, Hempelmann, Nils, Klehmet, Katharina, Lott, Fraser, Nangini, Cathy, Orth, Rene, Radanovics, Sabine, Seneviratne, Sonia I., ..., Yiou, Pascal. 2019. "Evaluation of the HadGEM3-A simulations in view of detection and attribution of human influence on extreme events in Europe." Climate Dynamics. 52 (1-2), pp. 1187-1210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4183-6
Was the cold European winter of 2009/10 modified by anthropogenic climate change? An attribution study
Christiansen, Bo, Alvarez-Castro, Carmen, Christidis, Nikolaos, Ciavarella, Andrew, Colfescu, Ioana, Cowan, Timothy, Eden, Jonathan, Hauser, Mathias, Hempelmann, Nils, Klehmet, Katharina, Lott, Fraser, Nangini, Cathy, van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan, Orth, Rene, Stott, Peter, Tett, Simon, Vautard, Robert, Wilcox, Laura and Yiou, Pascal. 2018. "Was the cold European winter of 2009/10 modified by anthropogenic climate change? An attribution study." Journal of Climate. 31 (9), pp. 3387-3410. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0589.1
The early 20th century warming: Anomalies, causes, and consequences
Hegerl, Gabriele C., Bronnimann, Stefan, Schurer, Andrew and Cowan, Tim. 2018. "The early 20th century warming: Anomalies, causes, and consequences." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: WIREs Climate Change. 9 (4). https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.522
Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the great plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl
Cowan, Tim, Hegerl, Gabriele C., Colfescu, Ioana, Bollasina, Massimo, Purich, Ariaan and Boschat, Ghyslaine. 2017. "Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the great plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl." Journal of Climate. 30 (7), pp. 2437-2461. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0436.1
Evidence for link between modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice and underestimated westerly wind changes
Purich, Ariaan, Cai, Wenju, England, Matthew H. and Cowan, Tim. 2016. "Evidence for link between modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice and underestimated westerly wind changes." Nature Communications. 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10409
Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves
Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S. E., White, C. J., Alexander, L. V., Argueso, D., Boschat, G., Cowan, T., Evans, J. P., Ekstrom, M., Oliver, E. C. J., Phatak, A. and Purich, A.. 2016. "Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves." Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change. 139 (1), pp. 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1650-0
Long-term streamflow trends in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin: Detecting drivers of change
Gao, Zhaoliang, Zhang, Lu, Zhang, Xiaoping, Cheng, Lei, Potter, Nick, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2016. "Long-term streamflow trends in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin: Detecting drivers of change." Hydrological Processes. 30 (9), pp. 1315-1329. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10704
On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations
Boschat, Ghyslaine, Simmonds, Ian, Purich, Purich, Cowan, Tim and Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes. 2016. "On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations." Scientific Reports. 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29599
Groundwater storage trends in the Loess Plateau of China estimated from streamflow records
Gao, Zhaoliang, Zhang, Lu, Cheng, Lei, Zhang, Xiaoping, Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju and Brutsaert, Wilfried. 2015. "Groundwater storage trends in the Loess Plateau of China estimated from streamflow records." Journal of Hydrology. 530, pp. 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.09.063
The Response of the Indian Ocean Dipole Asymmetry to Anthropogenic Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases
Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, Ng, Benjamin and England, Matthew. 2015. "The Response of the Indian Ocean Dipole Asymmetry to Anthropogenic Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases ." Journal of Climate. 28 (7), pp. 2564-2583. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00661.1
Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia
Boschat, Ghyslaine, Pezza, Alexandre, Simmonds, Ian, Perkins, Sarah, Cowan, Tim and Purich, Ariaan. 2015. "Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia." Climate Dynamics. 44 (7-8), pp. 1823-1840. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2214-5
Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Pachauri, Rajendra K., Allen, Myles R., Barros, Vicente R., Broome, John, Cramer, Wolfgang, Christ, Renate, Church, John A., Clarke, Leon, Dahe, Qin, Dasgupta, Purnamita, Dubash, Navroz K., Edenhofer, Ottmar, Elgizouli, Ismail, Field, Christopher B., Forster, Piers, Friedlingstein, Pierre, Fuglestvedt, Jan, Gomez-Echeverri, Luis, Hallegatte, Stephane, ..., van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal. 2015. Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland. IPCC.
Atmospheric and oceanic conditions associated with Southern Australian heat waves: A CMIP5 analysis
Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Uotila, Petteri, Pezza, Alexandre, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Perkins, Sarah. 2014. "Atmospheric and oceanic conditions associated with Southern Australian heat waves: A CMIP5 analysis." Journal of Climate. 27 (20), pp. 7807-7829. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00098.1
More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century
Cowan, Tim, Purich, Ariaan, Perkins, Sarah, Pezza, Alexandre, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Sadler, Katherine. 2014. "More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate. 27 (15), pp. 5851-5871. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00092.1
What is driving the fast warming rate of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean?
Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2014. "What is driving the fast warming rate of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean?" OCEANS'10 IEEE Sydney. Sydney, Australia 24 - 27 May 2010 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603876
Did climate change-induced rainfall trends contribute to the Australian Millennium drought?
Cai, Wenju, Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, van Rensch, Peter and Weller, Weller. 2014. "Did climate change-induced rainfall trends contribute to the Australian Millennium drought?" Journal of Climate. 27 (9), pp. 3145-3168. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00322.1
Decadal climate variability and cross-scale interactions: ICCL 2013 Expert Assessment Workshop
Holbrook, Neil J., Li, Jianping, Collins, Matthew, Di Lorenzo, Emanuele, Jin, Fei-Fei, Knutson, Thomas, Latif, Mojib, Li, Chongyin, Power, Scott B., Huang, Rhonghui and Wu, Guoxiong. 2014. "Decadal climate variability and cross-scale interactions: ICCL 2013 Expert Assessment Workshop." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 95 (8), pp. 155-158. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00201.1
Autumn precipitation trends over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes as simulated by CMIP5 models
Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, Min, Seung-Ki and Cai, Wenju. 2013. "Autumn precipitation trends over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes as simulated by CMIP5 models." Journal of Climate. 26 (21), pp. 8341-8356. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00007.1
Annual sea surface temperature lag as an indicator of regional climate variability
Li, Chung-Leong, Bye, John A.T., Gallagher, Stephen J. and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Annual sea surface temperature lag as an indicator of regional climate variability." International Journal of Climatology. 33 (10), pp. 2309-2317. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3587
The association of tropical and extratropical climate modes to atmospheric blocking across southeastern Australia
Cowan, Tim, van Rensch, Peter, Purich, Ariaan and Cai, Wenju. 2013. "The association of tropical and extratropical climate modes to atmospheric blocking across southeastern Australia." Journal of Climate. 26 (19), pp. 7555-7569. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00781.1
Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean
Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, Purich, Ariaan, Rotstayn, Leon and England, Matthew H.. 2013. "Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean." Scientific Reports. 3. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02245
The response of the large-scale ocean circulation to 20th century Asian and non-Asian aerosols
Cowan, T. and Cai, W.. 2013. "The response of the large-scale ocean circulation to 20th century Asian and non-Asian aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (11), pp. 2761-2767. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50587
Projected response of the Indian Ocean Dipole to greenhouse warming
Cai, Wenju, Zheng, Xiao-Tong, Weller, Evan, Collins, Mat, Cowan, Tim, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Yu, Weidong and Yamagata, Toshio. 2013. "Projected response of the Indian Ocean Dipole to greenhouse warming." Nature Geoscience. 6 (12), pp. 999-1007. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2009
Southeast Australia autumn rainfall reduction: A climate-change-induced poleward shift of ocean-atmosphere circulation
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Southeast Australia autumn rainfall reduction: A climate-change-induced poleward shift of ocean-atmosphere circulation." Journal of Climate. 26 (1), pp. 189-205. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00035.1
Why is the amplitude of the Indian ocean dipole overly large in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models?
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Why is the amplitude of the Indian ocean dipole overly large in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models?" Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (6), pp. 1200-1205. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50208
Annex I: Atlas of Global and Regional Climate Projections
van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan, Collins, Matthew, Arblaster, Julie, Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg, Marotzke, Jochem, Power, Scott B., Rummukainen, Markku and Zhou, Tianjun. 2013. "Annex I: Atlas of Global and Regional Climate Projections." Stocker, Thomas F., Qin, Dahe, Plattner, Gian-Kasper, Tignor, Melinda M.B., Allen, Simon K., Boschung, Judith, Nauels, Alexander, Xia, Yu, Bex, Vincent and Midgley, Pauline M. (ed.) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1311-1393
Simulation of the Indian Ocean Dipole: a relevant criterion for selecting models for climate projections
Cai, W., Sullivan, A., Cowan, T., Ribbe, J. and Shi, G.. 2011. "Simulation of the Indian Ocean Dipole: a relevant criterion for selecting models for climate projections." Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (3), pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046242
Are anthropogenic aerosols responsible for the northwest Australia summer rainfall increase? A CMIP3 perspective and implications
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Sullivan, Arnold, Ribbe, Joachim and Shi, Ge. 2011. "Are anthropogenic aerosols responsible for the northwest Australia summer rainfall increase? A CMIP3 perspective and implications." Journal of Climate. 24 (10), pp. 2556-2564. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3832.1
An Asymmetry in the IOD and ENSO teleconnection pathway and its impact on australian climate
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Hendon, Harry H.. 2012. "An Asymmetry in the IOD and ENSO teleconnection pathway and its impact on australian climate." Journal of Climate. 25 (18), pp. 6318-6329. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00501.1
Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: The role of subtropical dry zone expansion
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim and Thatcher, Marcus. 2012. "Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: The role of subtropical dry zone expansion." Scientific Reports. 2. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00702
El Nino-Southern oscillation
Holbrook, Neil J., Brown, Jaclyn N., Davidson, Julie, Feng, Ming, Hobday, Alistair J., Lough, Janice M., McGregor, Shayne, Power, Scott B. and Risbey, James S.. 2012. "El Nino-Southern oscillation." Poloczanska, Elvira S., Hobday, Alistair J. and Richardson, Anthony J. (ed.) Marine Climate Change in Australia: Impacts and Adaptation Responses - 2012 REPORT CARD. Australia. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 81-112
El Nino – Southern Oscillation
Holbrook, Neil J., Brown, Jaclyn N., Davidson, Julie, Feng, Ming, Hobday, Alistair J., Lough, Janice M., McGregor, Shayne, Power, Scott B. and Risbey, James S.. 2012. "El Nino – Southern Oscillation." Poloczanska, Elvira S., Hobday, Alistair J. and Richardson, Anthony J. (ed.) Marine Climate Change in Australia: Impacts and Adaptation Responses. 2012 Report Card. Australia. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 81-112
Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling
Shi, Ge, Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Ribbe, Joachim, Rotstayn, Leon and Dix, Martin. 2008. "Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling." Journal of Climate. 21 (12), pp. 2938-2959. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1908.1
An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections
Shi, G., Ribbe, J., Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2008. "An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (2), p. L2072. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032436
Anthropogenic aerosol forcing and the structure of temperature trends in the southern Indian Ocean
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Dix, Martin, Rotstayn, Leon, Ribbe, Joachim, Shi, Ge and Wijffels, Susan. 2007. "Anthropogenic aerosol forcing and the structure of temperature trends in the southern Indian Ocean." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (14), p. L14611. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030380
Multidecadal variability in the transmission of ENSO signals to the Indian Ocean
Shi, G., Ribbe, J., Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2007. "Multidecadal variability in the transmission of ENSO signals to the Indian Ocean." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (9), p. L09706. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029528
The response of the southern annular mode, the east Australian current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming
Cai, W., Shi, G., Cowan, T., Bi, D. and Ribbe, J.. 2005. "The response of the southern annular mode, the east Australian current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming." Geophysical Research Letters. 32 (23), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024701
The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon
Cowan, T. and Cai, W.. 2011. "The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047268
Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Hendon, Harry H.. 2011. "Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall." Journal of Climate. 24 (15), pp. 3910-3923. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4129.1
Influence of global-scale variability on the subtropical ridge over Southeast Australia
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter and Cowan, Tim. 2011. "Influence of global-scale variability on the subtropical ridge over Southeast Australia." Journal of Climate. 24 (23), pp. 6035-6053. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4149.1
Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?
Cai, W., van Rensch, P., Borlace, S. and Cowan, T.. 2011. "Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?" Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (14). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047943
Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 models
Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, T.. 2011. "Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 models." Journal of Climate. 24 (6), pp. 1688-1704. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3744.1
Do IPCC AR4 models produce the rainfall increase over Northwest Australia?
Shi, Ge, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim, Sullivan, Arnold and Cai, Wenju. 2010. "Do IPCC AR4 models produce the rainfall increase over Northwest Australia?" Burns, Barbara A., Davis, Clem, Kiss, Andrew E. and Taylor, John R. (ed.) 17th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society: Atmosphere, Oceans, Environment and Society. Canberra, Australia 27 - 29 Jan 2010 Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Rainfall variability of decadal and longer time scales: signal or noise?
Meinke, Holger, deVoil, Peter, Hammer, Graeme L., Power, Scott, Allan, Robert J., Stone, Roger C., Folland, Chris K. and Potgieter, Andries B.. 2005. "Rainfall variability of decadal and longer time scales: signal or noise?" Journal of Climate. 18 (1), pp. 89-90. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3263.1
Impacts of precipitation and temperature changes on annual streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin
Yu, Jingjie, Fu, Guobin, Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2010. "Impacts of precipitation and temperature changes on annual streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin." Water International. 35 (3), pp. 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2010.484907
Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Sullivan, Arnold. 2010. "Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact." Journal of Climate. 23 (18), pp. 4944-4955. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3501.1
Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Godfrey, Stuart and Wijffels, Susan. 2010. "Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean." Journal of Climate. 23 (1), pp. 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3081.1
Comment on "On the recent warming in the Murray-Darling Basin: Land surface interactions misunderstood" by Lockart et al
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Braganza, Karl, Jones, David and Risbey, James. 2010. "Comment on "On the recent warming in the Murray-Darling Basin: Land surface interactions misunderstood" by Lockart et al." Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (10). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL042254
On potential causes for an under-estimated global ocean heat content trend in CMIP3 models
Cai, W., Cowan, T., Arblaster, J. M. and Wijffels, S.. 2010. "On potential causes for an under-estimated global ocean heat content trend in CMIP3 models." Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (17). https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044399
A New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields
Bye, John A.T., Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2010. "A New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields ." Hurricanes and Climate Change. United States. Springer. pp. 101-120
Impact of Multidecadal Fluctuations in the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation on Indo-Pacific Climate Variability in a Coupled GCM
Rashid, Harun A., Power, Scott B. and Knight, Jeff R.. 2010. "Impact of Multidecadal Fluctuations in the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation on Indo-Pacific Climate Variability in a Coupled GCM." Journal of Climate. 23 (14), pp. 4038-4044. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3430.1
How well do IPCC-AR4 models simulate Australian rainfall teleconnections during two-consecutive positive Indian Ocean dipole events?
Sullivan, Arnold, Cai, W. and Cowan, T. D.. 2009. "How well do IPCC-AR4 models simulate Australian rainfall teleconnections during two-consecutive positive Indian Ocean dipole events?" 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .
Are declining river inflows linked to rising temperatures? A perspective from the Murray-Darling Basin
Cowan, T. D. and Cai, Wenju. 2009. "Are declining river inflows linked to rising temperatures? A perspective from the Murray-Darling Basin." 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .
Methods of assessing the performance of IPCC-AR4 models in simulating Australian rainfall teleconnections with Indo-Pacific climate drivers
Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "Methods of assessing the performance of IPCC-AR4 models in simulating Australian rainfall teleconnections with Indo-Pacific climate drivers." 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .
How rare are the 2006-2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole events? An IPCC AR4 climate model perspective
Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "How rare are the 2006-2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole events? An IPCC AR4 climate model perspective." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037982
Rainfall teleconnections with indo-pacific variability in the WCRP CMIP3 models
Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, Tim. 2009. "Rainfall teleconnections with indo-pacific variability in the WCRP CMIP3 models." Journal of Climate. 22 (19), pp. 5046-5071. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2694.1
Climate change contributes to more frequent consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events
Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "Climate change contributes to more frequent consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (23). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040163
Argo profiles a rare occurrence of three consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, 2006-2008
Cai, W., Pan, A., Roemmich, D., Cowan, T. and Guo, X.. 2009. "Argo profiles a rare occurrence of three consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, 2006-2008." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037038
Recent unprecedented skewness towards positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurrences and its impact on Australian rainfall
Cai, W., Cowan, T. and Sullivan, A.. 2009. "Recent unprecedented skewness towards positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurrences and its impact on Australian rainfall." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037604
Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires
Cai, W., Cowan, T. and Raupach, M.. 2009. "Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (19). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039902
Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Briggs, Peter and Raupach, Michael. 2009. "Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (21). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040334
La Niña Modoki impacts Australia autumn rainfall variability
Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "La Niña Modoki impacts Australia autumn rainfall variability." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037885
Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?
Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?" Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034174
Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (7). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033390
Dynamics of late autumn rainfall reduction over southeastern Australia
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Dynamics of late autumn rainfall reduction over southeastern Australia." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (9). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033727
The south-east Australia drought: Possible causes
Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2008. "The south-east Australia drought: Possible causes." Water: Official journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association. 35 (5), pp. 95-97.
Quality and potential utility of ENSO-based forecasts of spring rainfall and wheat yield in south-eastern Australia
Anwar, M. R., Rodriguez, D., Liu, D. L., Power, S. and O'Leary, G. J.. 2008. "Quality and potential utility of ENSO-based forecasts of spring rainfall and wheat yield in south-eastern Australia." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 59 (2), pp. 112-126. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR07061
A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research
Shi, Sue, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2007. "A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research
Shi, Sue, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2007. A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research. Toowoomba, Australia. Joachim Ribbe.
Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2007. "Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing." Journal of Climate. 20 (4), pp. 681-693. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4028.1
Impacts of increasing anthropogenic aerosols on the atmospheric circulation trends of the Southern Hemisphere: An air-sea positive feedback
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2007. "Impacts of increasing anthropogenic aerosols on the atmospheric circulation trends of the Southern Hemisphere: An air-sea positive feedback." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (23). https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031706
Making climate model forecasts more useful
Power, S. B., Plummer, N. and Alford, P.. 2007. "Making climate model forecasts more useful." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 58 (10), pp. 945-951. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR06196
SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction?
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2006. "SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction?" Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (24). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028037
Pan-oceanic response to increasing anthropogenic aerosols: Impacts on the Southern Hemisphere oceanic circulation
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Attribution of the Late-Twentieth-Century Rainfall Decline in Southwest Australia
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Large-scale vertical momentum, kinetic energy and moisture fluxes in the antarctic sea-ice region
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ENSIP: the El Nino simulation intercomparison project
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