Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling

Article


Shi, Ge, Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Ribbe, Joachim, Rotstayn, Leon and Dix, Martin. 2008. "Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling." Journal of Climate. 21 (12), pp. 2938-2959. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1908.1
Article Title

Variability and trend of the north west Australia rainfall: observations and coupled climate modeling

ERA Journal ID1978
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsShi, Ge (Author), Cai, Wenju (Author), Cowan, Tim (Author), Ribbe, Joachim (Author), Rotstayn, Leon (Author) and Dix, Martin (Author)
Journal TitleJournal of Climate
Journal Citation21 (12), pp. 2938-2959
Number of Pages22
Year2008
PublisherAmerican Meteorological Society
Place of PublicationUnited States
ISSN0894-8755
1520-0442
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1908.1
Web Address (URL)https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/clim/21/12/2007jcli1908.1.xml
Abstract

Since 1950, there has been an increase in rainfall over North West Australia (NWA), occurring mainly during the Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer season. A recent study
using 20th century multi-member ensemble simulations in a global climate model forced with and without increasing anthropogenic aerosols suggests that the rainfall increase is attributable to increasing Northern Hemisphere aerosols. The present study investigates the dynamics of the observed trend toward increased rainfall and compares the observed trend with that generated in the model forced with
increasing aerosols.

We find that the observed positive trend in rainfall is projected onto two modes of variability. The first mode is associated with an anomalously low mean sea level pressure (MSLP) off NWA instigated by the enhanced sea surface temperature (SST) gradients towards the coast. The associated cyclonic flows bring high moisture air to northern Australia, leading to an increase in rainfall. The second mode is associated with an anomalously high MSLP over much of the Australian continent; the anticyclonic circulation pattern with northwesterly flows west of 130°E and generally opposite flows in northeastern Australia, determine that when rainfall is anomalously high, west of 130oE, rainfall is anomalously low east of this longitude. The sum of the upward trends in these two modes compares well to the observed increasing trend pattern. The modeled rainfall trend, however, is generated by a different process. The model suffers from an equatorial cold-tongue bias: the tongue of anomalies associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation extends too far west into the eastern Indian Ocean. Consequently, there is an unrealistic relationship in the SH summer between Australian rainfall and eastern Indian Ocean SST: the rise in SST is associated with an increasing rainfall over NWA. In the presence of increasing aerosols, a significant SST increase occurs in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. As a result, the modeled rainfall increase in the presence of aerosol forcing is accounted for by these unrealistic relationships. It is not clear whether, in a model without such defects, the observed trend can be generated by increasing aerosols. Thus, the impact of aerosols on Australian rainfall remains an open question.

KeywordsAustralia; climate; Australian climate; climate variability; Indian Ocean dipole; El Nino Southern Oscillation; North West Australia; rainfall; climate modelling; drought; aerosols
Contains Sensitive ContentDoes not contain sensitive content
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020401199. Environmental engineering not elsewhere classified
370904. Palaeoclimatology
370202. Climatology
Public Notes

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Byline AffiliationsDepartment of Biological and Physical Sciences
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia
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Ribbe, Joachim. 2016. "A classroom activity: tracking El Niño." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 62 (2), pp. 11-17.
A palaeoclimatic rainfall history from Lake Broadwater, southeast Queensland, Australia
Cottrill, D. A., Ribbe, J., Maron, M. and Jacobsen, G.. 2014. "A palaeoclimatic rainfall history from Lake Broadwater, southeast Queensland, Australia." Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 119, pp. 35-43.
Is the East Australian Current causing a marine ecological hot-spot and an important fisheries near Fraser Island, Australia?
Brieva, Daniel, Ribbe, Joachim and Lemckert, Charles. 2015. "Is the East Australian Current causing a marine ecological hot-spot and an important fisheries near Fraser Island, Australia?" Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 153, pp. 121-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.12.012
Prepare the next generation for changes: education programs of climate change adaptation at the University of Southern Queensland
Xu, C. and Ribbe, J.. 2010. "Prepare the next generation for changes: education programs of climate change adaptation at the University of Southern Queensland." Climate Adaptation Futures: Preparing for the Unavoidable Impacts of Climate Change (2010). Gold Coast, Australia 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Evidence for link between modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice and underestimated westerly wind changes
Purich, Ariaan, Cai, Wenju, England, Matthew H. and Cowan, Tim. 2016. "Evidence for link between modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice and underestimated westerly wind changes." Nature Communications. 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10409
Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves
Perkins-Kirkpatrick, S. E., White, C. J., Alexander, L. V., Argueso, D., Boschat, G., Cowan, T., Evans, J. P., Ekstrom, M., Oliver, E. C. J., Phatak, A. and Purich, A.. 2016. "Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves." Climatic Change: an interdisciplinary, international journal devoted to the description, causes and implications of climatic change. 139 (1), pp. 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-016-1650-0
Long-term streamflow trends in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin: Detecting drivers of change
Gao, Zhaoliang, Zhang, Lu, Zhang, Xiaoping, Cheng, Lei, Potter, Nick, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2016. "Long-term streamflow trends in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin: Detecting drivers of change." Hydrological Processes. 30 (9), pp. 1315-1329. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10704
On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations
Boschat, Ghyslaine, Simmonds, Ian, Purich, Purich, Cowan, Tim and Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes. 2016. "On the use of composite analyses to form physical hypotheses: An example from heat wave - SST associations." Scientific Reports. 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29599
Groundwater storage trends in the Loess Plateau of China estimated from streamflow records
Gao, Zhaoliang, Zhang, Lu, Cheng, Lei, Zhang, Xiaoping, Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju and Brutsaert, Wilfried. 2015. "Groundwater storage trends in the Loess Plateau of China estimated from streamflow records." Journal of Hydrology. 530, pp. 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.09.063
The Response of the Indian Ocean Dipole Asymmetry to Anthropogenic Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases
Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, Ng, Benjamin and England, Matthew. 2015. "The Response of the Indian Ocean Dipole Asymmetry to Anthropogenic Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases ." Journal of Climate. 28 (7), pp. 2564-2583. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00661.1
Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia
Boschat, Ghyslaine, Pezza, Alexandre, Simmonds, Ian, Perkins, Sarah, Cowan, Tim and Purich, Ariaan. 2015. "Large scale and sub-regional connections in the lead up to summer heat wave and extreme rainfall events in eastern Australia." Climate Dynamics. 44 (7-8), pp. 1823-1840. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2214-5
Hervey Bay and its estuaries
Ribbe, Joachim. 2014. "Hervey Bay and its estuaries." Wolanski, Eric (ed.) Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and beyond. Netherlands. Springer. pp. 185-201
Future projections of Australian heat wave number and intensity based on CMIP5 models
Cowan, Tim, Purich, Ariaan, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Perkins, Sarah. 2014. "Future projections of Australian heat wave number and intensity based on CMIP5 models." Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. 27 (6), pp. 134-139.
Atmospheric and oceanic conditions associated with Southern Australian heat waves: A CMIP5 analysis
Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Uotila, Petteri, Pezza, Alexandre, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Perkins, Sarah. 2014. "Atmospheric and oceanic conditions associated with Southern Australian heat waves: A CMIP5 analysis." Journal of Climate. 27 (20), pp. 7807-7829. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00098.1
More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century
Cowan, Tim, Purich, Ariaan, Perkins, Sarah, Pezza, Alexandre, Boschat, Ghyslaine and Sadler, Katherine. 2014. "More frequent, longer, and hotter heat waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate. 27 (15), pp. 5851-5871. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00092.1
What is driving the fast warming rate of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean?
Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2014. "What is driving the fast warming rate of the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean?" OCEANS'10 IEEE Sydney. Sydney, Australia 24 - 27 May 2010 Australia. https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603876
Did climate change-induced rainfall trends contribute to the Australian Millennium drought?
Cai, Wenju, Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, van Rensch, Peter and Weller, Weller. 2014. "Did climate change-induced rainfall trends contribute to the Australian Millennium drought?" Journal of Climate. 27 (9), pp. 3145-3168. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00322.1
A simplified scale for assessing and communicating climate change impacts
Macfarlane, M. H. and Ribbe, J.. 2012. "A simplified scale for assessing and communicating climate change impacts." Lepetit, Julien (ed.) Water and Climate: Policy Implementation Challenges - 2nd Practical Responses to Climate Change Conference 2012. Canberra, Australia 01 - 03 May 2012 Canberra, Australia.
Autumn precipitation trends over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes as simulated by CMIP5 models
Purich, Ariaan, Cowan, Tim, Min, Seung-Ki and Cai, Wenju. 2013. "Autumn precipitation trends over Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes as simulated by CMIP5 models." Journal of Climate. 26 (21), pp. 8341-8356. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00007.1
Annual sea surface temperature lag as an indicator of regional climate variability
Li, Chung-Leong, Bye, John A.T., Gallagher, Stephen J. and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Annual sea surface temperature lag as an indicator of regional climate variability." International Journal of Climatology. 33 (10), pp. 2309-2317. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3587
The association of tropical and extratropical climate modes to atmospheric blocking across southeastern Australia
Cowan, Tim, van Rensch, Peter, Purich, Ariaan and Cai, Wenju. 2013. "The association of tropical and extratropical climate modes to atmospheric blocking across southeastern Australia." Journal of Climate. 26 (19), pp. 7555-7569. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00781.1
Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean
Cowan, Tim, Cai, Wenju, Purich, Ariaan, Rotstayn, Leon and England, Matthew H.. 2013. "Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean." Scientific Reports. 3. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02245
The response of the large-scale ocean circulation to 20th century Asian and non-Asian aerosols
Cowan, T. and Cai, W.. 2013. "The response of the large-scale ocean circulation to 20th century Asian and non-Asian aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (11), pp. 2761-2767. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50587
Projected response of the Indian Ocean Dipole to greenhouse warming
Cai, Wenju, Zheng, Xiao-Tong, Weller, Evan, Collins, Mat, Cowan, Tim, Lengaigne, Matthieu, Yu, Weidong and Yamagata, Toshio. 2013. "Projected response of the Indian Ocean Dipole to greenhouse warming." Nature Geoscience. 6 (12), pp. 999-1007. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2009
Southeast Australia autumn rainfall reduction: A climate-change-induced poleward shift of ocean-atmosphere circulation
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Southeast Australia autumn rainfall reduction: A climate-change-induced poleward shift of ocean-atmosphere circulation." Journal of Climate. 26 (1), pp. 189-205. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00035.1
Why is the amplitude of the Indian ocean dipole overly large in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models?
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2013. "Why is the amplitude of the Indian ocean dipole overly large in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate models?" Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (6), pp. 1200-1205. https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50208
Simulation of the Indian Ocean Dipole: a relevant criterion for selecting models for climate projections
Cai, W., Sullivan, A., Cowan, T., Ribbe, J. and Shi, G.. 2011. "Simulation of the Indian Ocean Dipole: a relevant criterion for selecting models for climate projections." Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (3), pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046242
Are anthropogenic aerosols responsible for the northwest Australia summer rainfall increase? A CMIP3 perspective and implications
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Sullivan, Arnold, Ribbe, Joachim and Shi, Ge. 2011. "Are anthropogenic aerosols responsible for the northwest Australia summer rainfall increase? A CMIP3 perspective and implications." Journal of Climate. 24 (10), pp. 2556-2564. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3832.1
Matthias Tomczak: a distinguished regional oceanographer and water-mass expert
You, Yuzhu, Ribbe, Joachim, Karstensen, Johannes and Church, John. 2008. "Matthias Tomczak: a distinguished regional oceanographer and water-mass expert." Progress in Oceanography. 77 (4), pp. 269-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2007.05.007
An Asymmetry in the IOD and ENSO teleconnection pathway and its impact on australian climate
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Hendon, Harry H.. 2012. "An Asymmetry in the IOD and ENSO teleconnection pathway and its impact on australian climate." Journal of Climate. 25 (18), pp. 6318-6329. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00501.1
Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: The role of subtropical dry zone expansion
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim and Thatcher, Marcus. 2012. "Rainfall reductions over Southern Hemisphere semi-arid regions: The role of subtropical dry zone expansion." Scientific Reports. 2. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00702
Mixing, hypersalinity and gradients in Hervey Bay, Australia
Grawe, Ulf, Wolff, Jorg-Olaf and Ribbe, Joachim. 2009. "Mixing, hypersalinity and gradients in Hervey Bay, Australia." Ocean Dynamics: theoretical, computational oceanography and monitoring. 59 (5), pp. 643-658. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-009-0195-4
Simulation of the middle miocene climate optimum
You, Y., Huber, M., Muller, R. D., Poulsen, C. J. and Ribbe, J.. 2009. "Simulation of the middle miocene climate optimum." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (4), p. L04702. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036571
Assessing water renewal time scales for marine environments from three-dimensional modelling: a case study for Hervey Bay, Australia
Ribbe, Joachim, Wolff, Jorg-Olaf, Staneva, Joanna and Grawe, Ulf. 2008. "Assessing water renewal time scales for marine environments from three-dimensional modelling: a case study for Hervey Bay, Australia." Environmental Modelling and Software. 23 (10-11), pp. 1217-1228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.007
An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections
Shi, G., Ribbe, J., Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2008. "An interpretation of Australian rainfall projections." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (2), p. L2072. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032436
Anthropogenic aerosol forcing and the structure of temperature trends in the southern Indian Ocean
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Dix, Martin, Rotstayn, Leon, Ribbe, Joachim, Shi, Ge and Wijffels, Susan. 2007. "Anthropogenic aerosol forcing and the structure of temperature trends in the southern Indian Ocean." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (14), p. L14611. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030380
Multidecadal variability in the transmission of ENSO signals to the Indian Ocean
Shi, G., Ribbe, J., Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2007. "Multidecadal variability in the transmission of ENSO signals to the Indian Ocean." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (9), p. L09706. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029528
Reply to a paper by A. Doury
Ribbe, Joachim and Tomczak, Matthias. 1993. "Reply to a paper by A. Doury." Marine Pollution Bulletin. 26 (9), p. 530. https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(93)90474-X
Sensitivity study of the role of vegetation in miocene climate change
You, John Y., Muller, Dietmar, Huber, Matthew, Otto-Bliesner, Bette, Poulsen, Chris, Sdrolias, Maria and Ribbe, Joachim. 2006. "Sensitivity study of the role of vegetation in miocene climate change." American Geophysical Union Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting 2006. Beijing, China 24 - 27 Jul 2006 Washington, DC. United States.
Intra-seasonal climate predictions - linking weather and climate forecasts
Donald, Alexis, Meinke, Holger, Power, Brendan, Wheeler, Matthew, Maia, Aline de H. N., White, Neil, Stone, Roger C. and Ribbe, Joachim. 2006. "Intra-seasonal climate predictions - linking weather and climate forecasts." Vera, Carolina (ed.) 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography (8ICSHMO): Understanding and Predicting Climate and Water Resources, their Variability and Change in the Southern Hemisphere. Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 24 - 28 Apr 2006 Washington, DC. United States.
Some indications of a reversed surface flow around Tasmania in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM)
Ribbe, Joachim and Tomczak, Matthias. 1996. "Some indications of a reversed surface flow around Tasmania in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM)." Ocean Modelling newsletter. 111, pp. 2-5.
First carbon-14 observations in the Great Australian Bight
Ribbe, Joachim, Bye, John T., Jacobsen, Geralding E., Lawson, Ewan M., Smith, Andrew M., Tomczak, Matthias and Tuniz, Claudio. 1996. "First carbon-14 observations in the Great Australian Bight." 7th International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. La Jolla, United States 18 May 1996 United States.
On the distribution of bomb carbon-14 in the Southern Ocean
Ribbe, Joachim, Tomczak, Matthias and Tuniz, Claudio. 1996. "On the distribution of bomb carbon-14 in the Southern Ocean." International WOCE Newsletter. 23, pp. 26-28.
Modelling radiocarbon uptake by the Southern Ocean
Ribbe, Joachim and Tomczak, Matthias. 1995. "Modelling radiocarbon uptake by the Southern Ocean." International WOCE Newsletter. 19, pp. 27-30.
On convection and the formation of subantarctic mode water in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model - FRAM
Ribbe, Joachim and Tomczak, Matthias. 1997. "On convection and the formation of subantarctic mode water in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model - FRAM." Journal of Marine Systems. 13, pp. 137-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(96)00119-4
On the effect of the missing Indonesian throughflow in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM)
Ribbe, Joachim and Tomczak, Matthias. 1997. "On the effect of the missing Indonesian throughflow in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM)." Journal of Physical Oceanography. 27, pp. 445-455.
Antarctic intermediate water mass formation in ocean general circulation models
Sorensen, Jacob V. T., Ribbe, Joachim and Shaffer, Gary. 2001. "Antarctic intermediate water mass formation in ocean general circulation models." Journal of Physical Oceanography. 31 (11), pp. 3295-3311. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<3295:AIWMFI>2.0.CO;2
Variability of southeast Queensland rainfall and climate indices
Murphy, Bradley F. and Ribbe, Joachim. 2004. "Variability of southeast Queensland rainfall and climate indices." International Journal of Climatology. 24 (6), pp. 703-721. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1018
Near-global impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall
Donald, Alexis, Meinke, Holger, Power, Brendan, Maia, Aline de H. N., Wheeler, Matthew, Stone, Roger C., Ribbe, Joachim and White, Neil. 2006. "Near-global impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall." Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (9), p. L09704. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025155
The response of the southern annular mode, the east Australian current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming
Cai, W., Shi, G., Cowan, T., Bi, D. and Ribbe, J.. 2005. "The response of the southern annular mode, the east Australian current, and the southern mid-latitude ocean circulation to global warming." Geophysical Research Letters. 32 (23), pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024701
The southern supplier
Ribbe, Joachim. 2004. "The southern supplier." Nature. 427, pp. 23-24.
A model of suspended sediment transport by internal tides
Ribbe, Joachim and Holloway, Peter E.. 2001. "A model of suspended sediment transport by internal tides." Continental Shelf Research. 21 (4), pp. 395-422.
A study into the export of saline water from Hervey Bay, Australia
Ribbe, Joachim. 2006. "A study into the export of saline water from Hervey Bay, Australia." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 66 (3-4), pp. 550-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2005.10.012
Impact of climate variability on an East Australian bay
Graewe, U., Wolff, J. -O. and Ribbe, J.. 2010. "Impact of climate variability on an East Australian bay." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 86 (2), pp. 247-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.11.020
The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon
Cowan, T. and Cai, W.. 2011. "The impact of Asian and non-Asian anthropogenic aerosols on 20th century Asian summer monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047268
Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Hendon, Harry H.. 2011. "Teleconnection pathways of ENSO and the IOD and the mechanisms for impacts on Australian rainfall." Journal of Climate. 24 (15), pp. 3910-3923. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4129.1
Influence of global-scale variability on the subtropical ridge over Southeast Australia
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter and Cowan, Tim. 2011. "Influence of global-scale variability on the subtropical ridge over Southeast Australia." Journal of Climate. 24 (23), pp. 6035-6053. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4149.1
Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?
Cai, W., van Rensch, P., Borlace, S. and Cowan, T.. 2011. "Does the Southern Annular Mode contribute to the persistence of the multidecade-long drought over southwest Western Australia?" Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (14). https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047943
Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 models
Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, T.. 2011. "Interactions of ENSO, the IOD, and the SAM in CMIP3 models." Journal of Climate. 24 (6), pp. 1688-1704. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3744.1
Rainfall declines over Queensland from 1951-2007 and links to the subtropical ridge and the SAM
Cottrill, D. A. and Ribbe, J.. 2010. "Rainfall declines over Queensland from 1951-2007 and links to the subtropical ridge and the SAM." IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/11/1/012037
Statistical downscaling of projected precipitation in two major Southeast Queensland catchments
Blazak, Adam and Ribbe, Joachim. 2010. "Statistical downscaling of projected precipitation in two major Southeast Queensland catchments." Burns, Barbara A., Davis, Clem, Kiss, Andrew E. and Taylor, John R. (ed.) 17th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society: Atmosphere, Oceans, Environment and Society. Canberra, Australia 27 - 29 Jan 2010 Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Do IPCC AR4 models produce the rainfall increase over Northwest Australia?
Shi, Ge, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim, Sullivan, Arnold and Cai, Wenju. 2010. "Do IPCC AR4 models produce the rainfall increase over Northwest Australia?" Burns, Barbara A., Davis, Clem, Kiss, Andrew E. and Taylor, John R. (ed.) 17th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society: Atmosphere, Oceans, Environment and Society. Canberra, Australia 27 - 29 Jan 2010 Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Observing hypersalinity in an East Australian subtropical estuary
Ribbe, Joachim. 2009. "Observing hypersalinity in an East Australian subtropical estuary." European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2009 (EGU2009). Vienna, Austria 19 - 24 Apr 2009
Low-frequency variability of regional sea surface temperature and rainfall in the Austral-Indonesian region
Faqih, Akhmad, Ribbe, Joachim and Meinke, Holger. 2009. "Low-frequency variability of regional sea surface temperature and rainfall in the Austral-Indonesian region." 9th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Melbourne, Australia 09 - 13 Feb 2009 United States of America.
A detailed proxy rainfall record from Lake Broadwater, Dalby, Southeast Queensland
Cottrill, Andrew, Ribbe, Joachim and Maron, Martine. 2009. "A detailed proxy rainfall record from Lake Broadwater, Dalby, Southeast Queensland." 9th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Melbourne, Australia 09 - 13 Feb 2009 Boston, MA.
Changes in MSLP over Queensland and the Southern Hemisphere
Cottrill, Andrew and Ribbe, Joachim. 2009. "Changes in MSLP over Queensland and the Southern Hemisphere." 9th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Melbourne, Australia 09 - 13 Feb 2009 United States of America.
Climate impact on hypersalinity in an Australian coastal bay
Ribbe, Joachim. 2010. "Climate impact on hypersalinity in an Australian coastal bay." You, Yuzhu and Henderson-Sellers, Ann (ed.) Climate alert: climate change monitoring and strategy. Sydney, Australia. Sydney University Press. pp. 213-237
How human-induced aerosols influence the ocean–atmosphere circulation: a review
Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2010. "How human-induced aerosols influence the ocean–atmosphere circulation: a review." Jubb, Imogen, Holper, Paul and Cai, Wenju (ed.) Managing Climate Change. Australia. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 65-72
Impacts of precipitation and temperature changes on annual streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin
Yu, Jingjie, Fu, Guobin, Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2010. "Impacts of precipitation and temperature changes on annual streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin." Water International. 35 (3), pp. 313-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2010.484907
Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact
Cai, Wenju, van Rensch, Peter, Cowan, Tim and Sullivan, Arnold. 2010. "Asymmetry in ENSO teleconnection with regional rainfall, its multidecadal variability, and impact." Journal of Climate. 23 (18), pp. 4944-4955. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3501.1
Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Godfrey, Stuart and Wijffels, Susan. 2010. "Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the southern midlatitude ocean." Journal of Climate. 23 (1), pp. 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3081.1
Comment on "On the recent warming in the Murray-Darling Basin: Land surface interactions misunderstood" by Lockart et al
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Braganza, Karl, Jones, David and Risbey, James. 2010. "Comment on "On the recent warming in the Murray-Darling Basin: Land surface interactions misunderstood" by Lockart et al." Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (10). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL042254
On potential causes for an under-estimated global ocean heat content trend in CMIP3 models
Cai, W., Cowan, T., Arblaster, J. M. and Wijffels, S.. 2010. "On potential causes for an under-estimated global ocean heat content trend in CMIP3 models." Geophysical Research Letters. 37 (17). https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044399
A New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields
Bye, John A.T., Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2010. "A New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields ." Hurricanes and Climate Change. United States. Springer. pp. 101-120
Impact of climate variability on the circulation of an East-Australian bay
Grawe, Ulf, Ribbe, Joachim and Wolff, Jorg-Olaf. 2009. "Impact of climate variability on the circulation of an East-Australian bay." 9th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Melbourne, Australia 09 - 13 Feb 2009 United States.
Interdecadal variability of regional sea surface temperature and rainfall in the Austral-Indonesian region
Faqih, Akhmad, Ribbe, Joachim and Meinke, Holger. 2008. "Interdecadal variability of regional sea surface temperature and rainfall in the Austral-Indonesian region." WMO 4th International Workshop on Monsoons (IWM-IV). Beijing, China 20 - 25 Oct 2008
Assessment of GCM-based rainfall simulations for the Austral-Indonesian region
Faqih, Akhmad, Ribbe, Joachim and Meinke, Holger. 2008. "Assessment of GCM-based rainfall simulations for the Austral-Indonesian region." WMO 4th International Workshop on Monsoons (IWM-IV). Beijing, China 20 - 25 Oct 2008
How well do IPCC-AR4 models simulate Australian rainfall teleconnections during two-consecutive positive Indian Ocean dipole events?
Sullivan, Arnold, Cai, W. and Cowan, T. D.. 2009. "How well do IPCC-AR4 models simulate Australian rainfall teleconnections during two-consecutive positive Indian Ocean dipole events?" 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .
Are declining river inflows linked to rising temperatures? A perspective from the Murray-Darling Basin
Cowan, T. D. and Cai, Wenju. 2009. "Are declining river inflows linked to rising temperatures? A perspective from the Murray-Darling Basin." 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .
Methods of assessing the performance of IPCC-AR4 models in simulating Australian rainfall teleconnections with Indo-Pacific climate drivers
Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "Methods of assessing the performance of IPCC-AR4 models in simulating Australian rainfall teleconnections with Indo-Pacific climate drivers." 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Cairns, Australia 13 - 17 Jul 2009 Australia. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand .
How rare are the 2006-2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole events? An IPCC AR4 climate model perspective
Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "How rare are the 2006-2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole events? An IPCC AR4 climate model perspective." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037982
Rainfall teleconnections with indo-pacific variability in the WCRP CMIP3 models
Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, Tim. 2009. "Rainfall teleconnections with indo-pacific variability in the WCRP CMIP3 models." Journal of Climate. 22 (19), pp. 5046-5071. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2694.1
Climate change contributes to more frequent consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events
Cai, W., Sullivan, A. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "Climate change contributes to more frequent consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (23). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040163
Argo profiles a rare occurrence of three consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, 2006-2008
Cai, W., Pan, A., Roemmich, D., Cowan, T. and Guo, X.. 2009. "Argo profiles a rare occurrence of three consecutive positive Indian Ocean Dipole events, 2006-2008." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037038
Recent unprecedented skewness towards positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurrences and its impact on Australian rainfall
Cai, W., Cowan, T. and Sullivan, A.. 2009. "Recent unprecedented skewness towards positive Indian Ocean Dipole occurrences and its impact on Australian rainfall." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037604
Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires
Cai, W., Cowan, T. and Raupach, M.. 2009. "Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (19). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039902
Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia
Cai, Wenju, Cowan, Tim, Briggs, Peter and Raupach, Michael. 2009. "Rising temperature depletes soil moisture and exacerbates severe drought conditions across southeast Australia." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (21). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040334
La Niña Modoki impacts Australia autumn rainfall variability
Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2009. "La Niña Modoki impacts Australia autumn rainfall variability." Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037885
Variability and change of the Indo-Pacific climate system and their impacts upon Australia rainfall
Shi, Ge. 2008. Variability and change of the Indo-Pacific climate system and their impacts upon Australia rainfall. PhD Thesis Doctor of Philosophy. University of Southern Queensland.
Monitoring and assessing salinity and temperature variations in Hervey Bay
Ribbe, Joachim. 2008. Monitoring and assessing salinity and temperature variations in Hervey Bay. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
L1 optimization for robust signal processing
Shi, Mingren and Lukas, Mark A.. 2005. "L1 optimization for robust signal processing." Caccetta, Lou and Rehbock, V. (ed.) 18th National ASOR Conference. Perth, WA 26 - 30 Nov 2005 Perth, Western Australia.
Stability of an Australian inverse bay
Grawe, Ulf, Ribbe, Joachim and Wolff, Jorg-Olaf. 2008. "Stability of an Australian inverse bay." PECS 2008: Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas. Liverpool, United Kingdom 25 - 29 Aug 2008 Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Hervey Bay: an inverse subtropical estuary
Ribbe, Joachim. 2007. "Hervey Bay: an inverse subtropical estuary." Inaugural Queensland Coastal Conference 2007: Shifting Sands. Bundaberg, Australia 17 - 19 Sep 2007 Bundaberg, Australia.
The inverse nature of an Australian bay
Grawe, U., Ribbe, J. and Wolff, J.-O.. 2008. "The inverse nature of an Australian bay." 5th European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2008. Vienna, Austria 13 - 18 Apr 2008 Germany.
The influence of the Madden Julian Oscillation on Queensland's rainfall
Donald, Alexis, Ribbe, Joachim, Stone, Roger, Meinke, Holger, Harris, Graham, Power, Brendan and Wheeler, Matthew. 2003. "The influence of the Madden Julian Oscillation on Queensland's rainfall." 15th Australian New Zealand Climate Forum. Palmerston, New Zealand 19 - 21 Mar 2003 Palmerston, New Zealand.
Queensland rainfall decline
Cottrill, Andrew and Ribbe, Joachim. 2008. "Queensland rainfall decline." 15th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society: Atmospheric and Oceanic Extremes. Geelong, Victoria 29 Jan - 01 Feb 2008 Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
Accessing exchange and ventilation time scales from 3-D modelling
Grawe, U., Ribbe, J., Wolff, J.-O. and Staneva, J.. 2007. "Accessing exchange and ventilation time scales from 3-D modelling." The Ocean in the Earth System: International Conference and 97th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung E.V. (2007). Bremen, Germany 01 - 05 Oct 2007 Bremen.
Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?
Cai, Wenju, Sullivan, Arnold and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?" Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034174
Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Evidence of impacts from rising temperature on inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (7). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033390
Dynamics of late autumn rainfall reduction over southeastern Australia
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2008. "Dynamics of late autumn rainfall reduction over southeastern Australia." Geophysical Research Letters. 35 (9). https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033727
The south-east Australia drought: Possible causes
Cai, W. and Cowan, T.. 2008. "The south-east Australia drought: Possible causes." Water: Official journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association. 35 (5), pp. 95-97.
A maximally diversified multiple decision tree algorithm for microarray data classification
Hu, Hong, Li, Jiuyong, Wang, Hua, Daggard, Grant and Shi, Mingren. 2006. "A maximally diversified multiple decision tree algorithm for microarray data classification." Boden, Mikael and Bailey, Timothy (ed.) Workshop on Intelligent Systems for Bioinformatics (2006). Hobart, Australia 04 Dec 2006 Sydney, Australia.
Ventilation times scales for a subtropical bay from 3-D modelling
Grawe, U., Ribbe, J., Wolff, J.-O. and Staneva, J.. 2007. "Ventilation times scales for a subtropical bay from 3-D modelling." 4th European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007. Vienna, Austria 15 - 20 Apr 2007 Germany.
Sensitivity of middle Miocene climate and regional monsoon to palaeo-altimetry
You, John, Muller, Dietmar, Sdrolias, Maria, Herold, Nicholas and Ribbe, Joachim. 2007. "Sensitivity of middle Miocene climate and regional monsoon to palaeo-altimetry." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
Impact of vegetation on the Miocene Climate optimum
You, John, Herold, Nicholas, Muller, Dietmar, Sdrolias, Maria and Ribbe, Joachim. 2007. "Impact of vegetation on the Miocene Climate optimum." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
Queensland rainfall variability in IPCC AR4 model runs
Cottrill, Andrew and Ribbe, Joachim. 2007. "Queensland rainfall variability in IPCC AR4 model runs." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research
Shi, Sue, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2007. "A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
20th century rainfall variability and the role of large scale climate events within Indo-Pacific region from IPCC AR4 models, reanalysis and observations
Faqih, Akhmad, Ribbe, Joachim and Meinke, Holger. 2007. "20th century rainfall variability and the role of large scale climate events within Indo-Pacific region from IPCC AR4 models, reanalysis and observations." 14th National Conference of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Adelaide, Australia 05 - 08 Feb 2007 Adelaide, Australia.
A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research
Shi, Sue, Ribbe, Joachim, Cowan, Tim and Cai, Wenju. 2007. A dataset of the wind-driven global ocean circulation for climate research. Toowoomba, Australia. Joachim Ribbe.
French nuclear tests: an impact assessment
Ribbe, Joachim. 1992. "French nuclear tests: an impact assessment." Pacific Research. 5 (1), pp. 20-21.
The South Atlantic in the late quaternary: reconstruction of material budgets and current systems: a review.
Ribbe, Joachim. 2005. "The South Atlantic in the late quaternary: reconstruction of material budgets and current systems: a review." Australian Marine Science Bulletin.
First Latin American school in ocean and climate modelling: summary report, lecture notes and seminar abstracts
Ribbe, Joachim. 2000. First Latin American school in ocean and climate modelling: summary report, lecture notes and seminar abstracts. Chile. University of Concepcion.
The Madden Julian Oscillation: a literature review
Donald, Alexis and Ribbe, Joachim. 2002. The Madden Julian Oscillation: a literature review. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
A teleconnection between the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude and equatorial ocean (Abstract)
Ribbe, Joachim. 2001. "A teleconnection between the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude and equatorial ocean (Abstract)." 14th Australian New Zealand Climate Forum. Darwin 17 - 21 Sep 2001 Darwin.
Seasonal climate forecasts for more effective raingrown grain-cotton production systems
Harris, Graham, Meinke, Holger, Power, Brendan, Donald, Alexis, deVoil, Peter and Ribbe, Joachim. 2002. "Seasonal climate forecasts for more effective raingrown grain-cotton production systems." 11th Australian Cotton Conference 2002: Field to Fashion. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 15 Aug 2002 Orange, Australia.
Using seasonal climate forecasts for more effective grain-cotton production systems
Harris, Graham, Chudleigh, Fred, Meinke, Holger, Donald, Alexis, Power, Brendan, Ribbe, Joachim, Stone, Roger and Wheeler, Matthew. 2003. "Using seasonal climate forecasts for more effective grain-cotton production systems." Australian Cotton Cooperative Research Centre Annual Science Review 2003. Armidale, Australia 23 - 24 Jul 2003 Armidale, Australia.
The Madden Julian Oscillation and its relationship with rainfall in Queensland
Donald, Alexis, Ribbe, Joachim, Stone, Roger, Wheeler, Matthew, Meinke, Holger, Harris, Graham and Power, Brendan. 2003. "The Madden Julian Oscillation and its relationship with rainfall in Queensland." Stone, Roger C. and Partridge, Ian (ed.) National Drought Forum 2003: Science for Drought. Brisbane, Australia 15 - 16 Apr 2003 Brisbane, Australia.
Using the real-time mulitvariate Madden Julian oscillation indices to predict rainfall in Queensland
Donald, Alexis, Ribbe, Joachim, Stone, Roger C., Wheeler, Matthew, Meinke, Holger, Harris, Graham and Power, Brendan. 2003. "Using the real-time mulitvariate Madden Julian oscillation indices to predict rainfall in Queensland." 7th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography 2003: Southern Ocean Weather and Climate Variability: Regional and Global Effects. Wellington, New Zealand 24 - 28 Mar 2003 Boston, MA. United States.
Linking Southern Ocean water masses and Australian rainfall variability
Ribbe, Joachim. 2004. "Linking Southern Ocean water masses and Australian rainfall variability." Australian Marine Sciences Association Hobart Conference (2004). Hobart, Australia 06 - 09 Jul 2004 Australia.
Hervey Bay: a salt fountain in subtropical East Australia
Ribbe, Joachim. 2006. "Hervey Bay: a salt fountain in subtropical East Australia." 2006 International Geographical Union Regional Conference: Spaced in or spaced out. Brisbane, Australia 03 - 07 Jul 2006
Modelling ventilation time scales for Hervey Bay
Ribbe, Joachim. 2006. "Modelling ventilation time scales for Hervey Bay." Australian Marine Sciences Assocation (AMS) 44th Annual Conference. Cairns, Australia 09 - 14 Jul 2006 Australia.
Forecasting with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the applications for risk management
Donald, Alexis, Meinke, Holger, Power, Brendan, Wheeler, Matthew and Ribbe, Joachim. 2004. "Forecasting with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the applications for risk management." 4th International Crop Science Congress (ICSC 2004): New Directions for a Diverse Planet. Brisbane, Australia 26 Sep - 01 Oct 2004 Brisbane, Australia.
Climate change: what is happening in the ocean?
Ribbe, Joachim. 2001. "Climate change: what is happening in the ocean?" Ciencia Al Dia Internacional. 4 (2), pp. 1-18.
An impact assessment for the French nuclear weapon test sites in French Polynesia
Ribbe, Joachim and Tomczak, Matthias. 1990. "An impact assessment for the French nuclear weapon test sites in French Polynesia." Marine Pollution Bulletin. 21, pp. 536-542.
A one-dimensional dispersion model for radionuclides in the marine environment applied to the Chernobyl fallout over the northern Baltic Sea
Ribbe, Joachim, Muller-Navarra, Sylvin H. and Nies, Hartmut. 1991. "A one-dimensional dispersion model for radionuclides in the marine environment applied to the Chernobyl fallout over the northern Baltic Sea." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 14 (1), pp. 55-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(91)90015-8
What drives mid-latitudinal convection and the formation of Subantarctic Mode Water
Ribbe, Joachim. 1997. "What drives mid-latitudinal convection and the formation of Subantarctic Mode Water." International WOCE Newsletter. 29, pp. 20-26.
Intermediate water mass production controlled by southern hemisphere winds
Ribbe, Joachim. 2001. "Intermediate water mass production controlled by southern hemisphere winds." Geophysical Research Letters. 28 (3), pp. 535-538. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012242
On wind-driven mid-latitude convection in ocean general circulation models
Ribbe, Joachim. 1999. "On wind-driven mid-latitude convection in ocean general circulation models." Tellus Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography. 51, pp. 505-516.
An introduction to Internet based climate science teaching
Ribbe, Joachim. 2002. "An introduction to Internet based climate science teaching." Australian Science Teachers' Journal. 48 (3), pp. 28-35.
Climate modelling for the classroom: applying physics and mathematics in a new context
Ribbe, Joachim. 2005. "Climate modelling for the classroom: applying physics and mathematics in a new context." Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association. 51 (3), pp. 24-37.
Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2007. "Trends in Southern Hemisphere circulation in IPCC AR4 models over 1950-99: Ozone depletion versus greenhouse forcing." Journal of Climate. 20 (4), pp. 681-693. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4028.1
Impacts of increasing anthropogenic aerosols on the atmospheric circulation trends of the Southern Hemisphere: An air-sea positive feedback
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2007. "Impacts of increasing anthropogenic aerosols on the atmospheric circulation trends of the Southern Hemisphere: An air-sea positive feedback." Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (23). https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031706
SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction?
Cai, Wenju and Cowan, Tim. 2006. "SAM and regional rainfall in IPCC AR4 models: Can anthropogenic forcing account for southwest Western Australian winter rainfall reduction?" Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (24). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028037
Pan-oceanic response to increasing anthropogenic aerosols: Impacts on the Southern Hemisphere oceanic circulation
Cai, W., Bi, D., Church, J., Cowan, T., Dix, M. and Rotstayn, L.. 2006. "Pan-oceanic response to increasing anthropogenic aerosols: Impacts on the Southern Hemisphere oceanic circulation." Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (21). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027513
Large-scale vertical momentum, kinetic energy and moisture fluxes in the antarctic sea-ice region
Simmonds, Ian, Rafter, Anthony, Cowan, Timothy, Watkins, Andrew B. and Keay, Kevin. 2005. "Large-scale vertical momentum, kinetic energy and moisture fluxes in the antarctic sea-ice region." Boundary-Layer Meteorology: an international journal of physical and biological processes in the atmospheric boundary layer. 117 (1), pp. 149-177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-004-5939-6
Sonoluminescence quenching by organic acids in aqueous solution: pH and frequency effects
Price, Gareth J. P, Ashokkumar, Muthupandian, Cowan, Timothy D. and Grieser, Franz. 2002. "Sonoluminescence quenching by organic acids in aqueous solution: pH and frequency effects." Chemical Communications. 16 (16), p. 1740–1741. https://doi.org/10.1039/B201795D