The gut-brain axis, the human gut microbiota and their integration in the development of obesity

Article


Bliss, Edward S. and Whiteside, Eliza. 2018. "The gut-brain axis, the human gut microbiota and their integration in the development of obesity." Frontiers in Physiology. 9, pp. 1-27. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00900
Article Title

The gut-brain axis, the human gut microbiota and their integration in the development of obesity

ERA Journal ID200523
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsBliss, Edward S. (Author) and Whiteside, Eliza (Author)
Journal TitleFrontiers in Physiology
Journal Citation9, pp. 1-27
Article Number900
Number of Pages27
Year2018
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
ISSN1664-042X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00900
Web Address (URL)https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.00900/full
Abstract

Obesity is a global epidemic, placing socioeconomic strain on public healthcare systems, especially within the so-called Western countries, such as Australia, United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy intake exceeds expenditure. Current non-invasive treatments lack efficacy in combating obesity, suggesting that obesity is a multi-faceted and more complex disease than previously thought. This has led to an increase in research exploring energy homeostasis and the discovery of a complex bidirectional communication axis referred to as the gut-brain axis. The gut-brain axis is comprised of various neurohumoral components that allow the gut and brain to communicate with each other. Communication occurs within the axis via local, paracrine and/or endocrine mechanisms involving a variety of gut-derived peptides produced from enteroendocrine cells (EECs), including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY3−36 (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and oxyntomodulin. Neural networks, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vagus nerve also convey information within the gut-brain axis. Emerging evidence suggests the human gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem residing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), may influence weight-gain through several inter-dependent pathways including energy harvesting, short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) signalling, behaviour modifications, controlling satiety and modulating inflammatory responses within the host. Hence, the gut-brain axis, the microbiota and the link between these elements and the role each plays in either promoting or regulating energy and thereby contributing to obesity will be explored in this review.

Keywordsgut-brain axis, microbiota, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), peptide YY3−36 (PYY), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), obesity, short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA)
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020320899. Medical physiology not elsewhere classified
Byline AffiliationsSchool of Health and Wellbeing
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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