Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of biofuel spray (biodiesel and alcohols) in CI engines: A review

Article


Algayyim, Sattar Jabbar Murad and Wandel, Andrew P.. 2021. "Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of biofuel spray (biodiesel and alcohols) in CI engines: A review." Fuel. 292, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120303
Article Title

Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of biofuel spray (biodiesel and alcohols) in CI engines: A review

ERA Journal ID3883
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsAlgayyim, Sattar Jabbar Murad (Author) and Wandel, Andrew P. (Author)
Journal TitleFuel
Fuel: the science and technology of fuel and energy
Journal Citation292, pp. 1-14
Article Number120303
Number of Pages14
Year2021
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
ISSN0016-2361
1873-7153
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.120303
Web Address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236121001794
Abstract

Spray characteristics are among the most important factors affecting compression ignition (CI) engine perfor-mance and emission levels. Fuel flow visualisation and optical diagnostics have been widely employed as methods for investigating combustion processes in CI engines. Due to the increase in the number of renewable alternative fuels and more stringent legislation governing engine pollutant emissions, it is important to char-acterise the spray behaviour of these alternative fuels in CI engines under different operating conditions. This study reviews and summarises the practice of spray visualisation to determine macroscopic character-istics, such as spray tip penetration (S) and spray cone (θ); and microscopic characteristics such as spray droplet diameter and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). It also provides literature reviews: experimental efforts regarding optical techniques; spray operating conditions (injection pressure, ambient conditions, and injector geometry), fuel types (biodiesel and alcohol blends) and numerical studies regarding software usage, spray models and simulation cases results. Increasing fuel injection pressure (FIP) initiates combustion due to improved spray penetration length and atomisation, however SMD decreases with increasing FIP. Fuel properties and ambient temperatures have a significant impact on both spray penetration length of the liquid phase and, two-phase interaction between liquid and vapour. Velocity of spray droplets is impacted by ambient gas and aerodynamic and viscous properties because of their impact on spray breakup processes. The higher viscosity and higher surface tension of the biodiesel blend resulted in a reduction of the Weber number and injection velocity with a corresponding increase in droplet size and SMD. All alcohol blends improved the atomisation performance of biodiesel and diesel fuel because alcohol blends have low kinematic viscosity, boiling point and surface tension leading to improved atomisation and vaporisation rate. Piezo-driven injection system atomisation performance is better than that of the solenoid-driven injection because of its faster response time. Finally, simulation studies of spray visualisation revealed good agreement with the experimental investigation so simulation studies can save time and effort.

KeywordsSpray visualisation; Droplets; Optical techniques; Spray simulation; Biofuel
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020400201. Automotive combustion and fuel engineering
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Byline AffiliationsSchool of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
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Wandel, Andrew P.. 2013. "Mixture fraction probability density functions in sparse spray flames with spark ignition." Zhu, Mingming, Ma, Yu, Yu, Yun, Vuthaluru, Hari, Zhang, Zhezi and Zhang, Dongke (ed.) 7th Australian Combustion Symposium (ACS 2013). Perth, Australia 06 - 08 Nov 2013 Perth, Australia.
The air fuel ratio study for the mixture of biogas and hydrogen on mild combustion
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, Talal. 2013. "The air fuel ratio study for the mixture of biogas and hydrogen on mild combustion." 3rd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2013). Sydney, Australia 04 - 05 Jul 2013 Sydney, Australia.
Discretization of three dimensional non-uniform grid: conditional moment closure elliptic equation using finite difference method
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, Talal. 2013. "Discretization of three dimensional non-uniform grid: conditional moment closure elliptic equation using finite difference method." 3rd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2013). Sydney, Australia 04 - 05 Jul 2013 Sydney, Australia.
A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine: an introduction
Hairuddin, A. Aziz, Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, Talal. 2013. "A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine: an introduction." 3rd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2013). Sydney, Australia 04 - 05 Jul 2013 Sydney, Australia.
Conditional dissipation of scalars in homogeneous turbulence: closure for MMC modelling
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2013. "Conditional dissipation of scalars in homogeneous turbulence: closure for MMC modelling." Combustion Theory and Modelling. 17 (4), pp. 707-748. https://doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2013.794391
Extinction predictors in turbulent sprays
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2013. "Extinction predictors in turbulent sprays." Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 34 (1), pp. 1625-1632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2012.07.037
Hybrid multiple mapping conditioning modeling of local extinction
Wandel, Andrew P. and Lindstedt, R. Peter. 2013. "Hybrid multiple mapping conditioning modeling of local extinction." Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 34 (1), pp. 1365-1372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2012.07.073
Student perceptions of teammates' performance: influence of team formation method
Wandel, Andrew P. and Willey, Keith. 2012. "Student perceptions of teammates' performance: influence of team formation method." Mann, Llewellyn and Daniel, Scott (ed.) 23rd Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE 2012). Melbourne, Australia 03 - 05 Dec 2012 Melbourne, Australia.
A review of mild combustion and open furnace design consideration
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, Talal. 2012. "A review of mild combustion and open furnace design consideration." International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering. 6 (1), pp. 730-754.
HCCI engine: numerical and experimental approach
Hairuddin, A. Aziz, Yusaf, Talal F. and Wandel, Andrew P.. 2012. "HCCI engine: numerical and experimental approach." Noor, M. M., Baker, Paul and Yusaf, Talal F. (ed.) USQ Combustion Meeting 2012 (26th September). Toowoomba, Australia 26 Sep 2012 Toowoomba, Australia.
Investigation of Biogas Moderate or Intense Low Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion on open furnace bluff-body burner
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2012. "Investigation of Biogas Moderate or Intense Low Oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion on open furnace bluff-body burner." Noor, M. M., Baker, Paul and Yusaf, Talal F. (ed.) USQ Combustion Meeting 2012 (29th August). Toowoomba, Australia 29 Aug 2012 Toowoomba, Australia.
Modelling of non-premixed turbulent combustion of hydrogen using conditional moment closure method
Noor, M. M., Hairuddin, A. Aziz, Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2012. "Modelling of non-premixed turbulent combustion of hydrogen using conditional moment closure method." IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 36 (1), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/36/1/012036
The modelling of the effect of air fuel ratio on unburned hydrocarbons for MILD combustion
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2012. "The modelling of the effect of air fuel ratio on unburned hydrocarbons for MILD combustion." Noor, M. M., Rahman, M. M. and Ismail, J. (ed.) 2nd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2012). Gold Coast, Australia 07 - 09 Jul 2012 Sydney, Australia.
A preliminary study of control parameters for open furnace mild combustion using CFD
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2012. "A preliminary study of control parameters for open furnace mild combustion using CFD." Noor, M. M., Rahman, M. M. and Ismail, J. (ed.) 2nd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2012). Gold Coast, Australia 07 - 09 Jul 2012 Sydney, Australia.
Mild combustion: a technical review towards open furnace combustion
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2012. "Mild combustion: a technical review towards open furnace combustion." Noor, M. M., Rahman, M. M. and Ismail, J. (ed.) 2nd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC 2012). Gold Coast, Australia 07 - 09 Jul 2012 Sydney, Australia.
Numerical investigation of influence of air and fuel dilution for open furnace MILD combustion burner
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2012. "Numerical investigation of influence of air and fuel dilution for open furnace MILD combustion burner." 2012 Southern Regional Engineering Conference (SREC 2012). Toowoomba, Australia 01 Sep 2012 Canberra, Australia.
Predicting the combustion behaviour of a diesel HCCI engine using a zero-dimensional single-zone model
Hairuddin, A. Aziz, Yusaf, Talal F. and Wandel, Andrew P.. 2011. "Predicting the combustion behaviour of a diesel HCCI engine using a zero-dimensional single-zone model." Kennedy, Eric, Dlugogorski, Bogdan, Moghtaderi, Behdad and Masri, Assaad (ed.) 11th Australian Combustion Symposium (ACS 2011). Newcastle, Australia 29 Nov - 01 Dec 2011 Sydney, Australia.
Team formation by region to improve outcomes for distance-education students in a PBL course
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2011. "Team formation by region to improve outcomes for distance-education students in a PBL course." 41st ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE 2011): Celebrating 41 Years of Monumental Innovations from around the World. Rapid City, United States 12 - 15 Oct 2011 Piscataway, NJ. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2011.6142727
Implementation of conditional moment closure using the Taylor expansion and finite differences
Noor, M. M., Hairuddin, A. Aziz, Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2011. "Implementation of conditional moment closure using the Taylor expansion and finite differences." 1st International Conference of Mechanical Engineering Research (ICMER 2011). Kuantan, Malaysia 05 - 07 Dec 2011 Kuantan, Malaysia.
Optimising the design, installation and operation of a monolayer application system on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew, Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Schmidt, Erik. 2011. "Optimising the design, installation and operation of a monolayer application system on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'." Thompson, Chris (ed.) Irrigation 2011: New Horizons, Fresh Ideas Regional Conference and Exhibition. Launceston, Australia 22 - 25 Aug 2011 Sydney, Australia.
A stochastic micromixing model based on the turbulent diffusion length scale
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2011. "A stochastic micromixing model based on the turbulent diffusion length scale." Kennedy, Eric, Moghtaderi, Bogdan, Dlugogorski, Behdad and Masri, Assaad (ed.) 11th Australian Combustion Symposium (ACS 2011). Newcastle, Australia 29 Nov - 01 Dec 2011 Sydney, Australia.
A hybrid EMST-modified Curl's model for turbulent combustion modelling
Noor, M. M., Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, T. F.. 2011. "A hybrid EMST-modified Curl's model for turbulent combustion modelling." University of Southern Queensland's Research Evening: Showcasing USQ Research (2011). Toowoomba, Australia 17 Nov 2011
Study of random particle interactions for analysis of diffusion lengths in turbulent combustion modelling
Noor, M. M., Yusaf, T. F. and Wandel, Andrew P.. 2011. "Study of random particle interactions for analysis of diffusion lengths in turbulent combustion modelling." Kennedy, Eric, Dlugogorski, Bogdan, Moghtaderi, Behdad and Masri, Assaad (ed.) 11th Australian Combustion Symposium (ACS 2011). Newcastle, Australia 29 Nov - 01 Dec 2011 Sydney, Australia.
Utilising tablet PCs in tutorials to aid external students
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2009. "Utilising tablet PCs in tutorials to aid external students." Kestell, Colin, Grainger, Steven and Cheung, John (ed.) 20th Annual Conference for the Australasian Association of Engineering Education (AAEE 2009). Adelaide, Australia 06 - 09 Dec 2009 Adelaide, Australia.
Which version art thou? Configuration management in engineering education
Jokic, Michael D., Wandel, Andrew P. and Kist, Alexander A.. 2010. "Which version art thou? Configuration management in engineering education." Gardner, Anne and Jolly, Lesley (ed.) 21st Annual Conference for the Australasian Association of Engineering Education (AAEE 2010). Sydney, Australia 05 - 08 Dec 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Analysis of data to develop models for spray combustion
Clarke, Jason, Wandel, Andrew P. and Mastorakos, E.. 2010. "Analysis of data to develop models for spray combustion." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Hydrogen and natural gas comparison in diesel HCCI engines -a review
Hairuddin, A. Aziz, Wandel, Andrew P. and Yusaf, Talal. 2010. "Hydrogen and natural gas comparison in diesel HCCI engines -a review." Goh, Steven C. and Wang, Hao (ed.) 2010 Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010). Toowoomba, Australia 11 - 12 Nov 2010 Toowoomba, Australia.
Linkages between courses: a holistic approach to programmes
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2010. "Linkages between courses: a holistic approach to programmes." Gardner, Anne and Jolly, Lesley (ed.) 21st Annual Conference for the Australasian Association of Engineering Education (AAEE 2010). Sydney, Australia 05 - 08 Dec 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Student usage of videos containing worked solutions
Wandel, Andrew P.. 2010. "Student usage of videos containing worked solutions." Gardner, Anne and Jolly, Lesley (ed.) 21st Annual Conference for the Australasian Association of Engineering Education (AAEE 2010). Sydney, Australia 05 - 08 Dec 2010 Sydney, Australia.
Scaffolding distance learning in mathematics for engineering: identifying key troublesome knowledge
Galligan, Linda, Wandel, Andrew P. and Hartle, R. Todd. 2010. "Scaffolding distance learning in mathematics for engineering: identifying key troublesome knowledge." Hudson, Peter, Chandra, Vinesh, King, Donna and Lee, Kar-Tin (ed.) 1st Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Education Conference (STEM 2010). Brisbane, Australia 26 - 27 Nov 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Experimental and modeling investigation of the performance characteristics on diesel HCCI with hydrogen additive - a review
Supeni, E. E., Yusaf, Talal, Wandel, Andrew P., Buttsworth, David R. and Noor, M. M.. 2010. "Experimental and modeling investigation of the performance characteristics on diesel HCCI with hydrogen additive - a review." 2nd National Conference in Mechanical Engineering Research and Postgraduate Studies. Kuantan, Malaysia 03 - 04 Dec 2010 Malaysia.
Determining operational requirements to optimise monolayer performance on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2010. "Determining operational requirements to optimise monolayer performance on a farm dam via a 'Universal Design Framework'." Montagu, Kelvin (ed.) Australian Irrigation Conference and Exibition 2010: One Water Many Futures. Sydney, Australia 08 - 10 Jun 2010 Sydney, Australia.
A ‘universal design framework’ for installation planning and operational management of evaporation-suppressing films on agricultural reservoirs
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Pittaway, Pam, Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2010. "A ‘universal design framework’ for installation planning and operational management of evaporation-suppressing films on agricultural reservoirs." Genet, Roger (ed.) International Conference on Agricultural Engineering: Towards Environmental Technologies (2010). Clermont-Ferrand, France 06 - 08 Sep 2010
Application of hybrid binomial Langevin-multiple mapping conditioning method to reacting jet flow
Wandel, Andrew P. and Lindstedt, R. Peter. 2009. "Application of hybrid binomial Langevin-multiple mapping conditioning method to reacting jet flow." Klimenko, Alexander Y., Cleary, Matthew J., Feng, Bo, Rudolph, Victor, Boyce, Russell R., Wandel, Andrew P. and Clements, Rose (ed.) Australian Combustion Symposium (ACS 2009). Brisbane, Australia 02 - 04 Dec 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Direct numerical simulations of autoignition in turbulent two-phase flows
Schroll, Peter, Wandel, Andrew P., Cant, R. Stewart and Mastorakos, E.. 2009. "Direct numerical simulations of autoignition in turbulent two-phase flows." Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 32 (2), pp. 2275-2282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.057
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flame expansion in fine sprays
Wandel, Andrew P., Chakraborty, Nilanjan and Mastorakos, E.. 2009. "Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flame expansion in fine sprays." Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 32 (2), pp. 2283-2290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.102
Towards adaptive operational requirements for optimal application of evaporation-suppressing monolayer to reservoirs via a 'universal design framework'
Brink, Gavin, Wandel, Andrew P., Hancock, Nigel and Pather, Selvan. 2009. "Towards adaptive operational requirements for optimal application of evaporation-suppressing monolayer to reservoirs via a 'universal design framework'." IWER 2009: International Workshop on Evaporation from Reservoirs. Gold Coast, Australia 09 - 11 Dec 2009 Gold Coast, Australia.
Testing multiple mapping conditioning mixing for Monte Carlo probability density function simulations
Wandel, Andrew P. and Klimenko, Alexander Y.. 2005. "Testing multiple mapping conditioning mixing for Monte Carlo probability density function simulations." Physics of Fluids. 17 (12), pp. 128105-1. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2147609
Hybrid binomial Langevin-multiple mapping conditioning modeling of a reacting mixing layer
Wandel, Andrew P. and Lindstedt, R. Peter. 2009. "Hybrid binomial Langevin-multiple mapping conditioning modeling of a reacting mixing layer." Physics of Fluids. 21 (1), pp. 015103-015116. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3041716