Review of Technologies, Regulations and Operating Standards for Field Based Autonomous Agricultural Machinery

Technical report


Baillie, Craig, Torrance, Logan, Long, Derek, Brett, Peter and Humpal, Jacob. 2020. Review of Technologies, Regulations and Operating Standards for Field Based Autonomous Agricultural Machinery. Toowoomba, Australia. University of Southern Queensland.
Title

Review of Technologies, Regulations and Operating Standards for Field Based Autonomous Agricultural Machinery

Report TypeTechnical report
AuthorsBaillie, Craig (Author), Torrance, Logan (Author), Long, Derek (Author), Brett, Peter (Author) and Humpal, Jacob (Author)
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Year2020
PublisherUniversity of Southern Queensland
Place of PublicationToowoomba, Australia
Web Address (URL)https://agengineering.usq.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/GRDC-USQ-Autonomy-Technical-Review.pdf
Abstract

To inform the development of a Code of Practice (CoP) for Autonomous Machinery in Agriculture a review was undertaken to assess current technology developments and the status of standards and regulations informing the commercial release of this technology. Large equipment manufacturers including companies such as John Deere, Case New Holland, AGCO, CLAAS, Deutz Fahr and Kubota are progressively moving from automation to autonomy where machinery systems operate independently from human involvement. These developments occur at the component level and provide a pathway to autonomy where value is extracted as features and functionality on new models of machinery. A review of the technology landscape suggests that many of the enabling features for full autonomy are already present on recent model tractors with the exception of machine perception. The current level of technology availability suggests that autonomous technology is within reach of a commercial reality. In this regard non-technical considerations which inform the roll out of this technology is timely and include the obligations of manufacturers, dealers (including service agents), end users of the technology as well as standards and test protocols informing the safe operation of this equipment. New standards are currently being developed which will inform the commercial development of autonomous systems however there is a lack of information on performance expectations, testing protocols and assessment criteria for the infield application of autonomous machinery which requires further work. Similarly developments in agricultural autonomous machinery are limited by the absence of an agreed definition for the Operating Design Domain (ODD) which provides specifics on the operating environment and machinery requirements. Clarity on the ODD will help define technology requirements, the development of standards, expected performance and protocols for testing and assessment. Restricting the ODD to a structured operating environment will provide a progressive implementation of autonomy in agriculture. It is apparent from the transport sector that restricting the ODD has contributed to the roll out of driverless cars and that a controlled release of autonomous machinery on farm and under commercial use cases will greatly assist more broad scale / wider release of the technology. The CoP informed by this review, will provide the overarching structure to separate work such as the implementation of new standards, design specifications and test protocols that will facilitate the commercial release of autonomous machinery in Australian agriculture.

KeywordsAutomation, Autonomy, Regulation, Agriculture
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020409901. Agricultural engineering
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Byline AffiliationsCentre for Agricultural Engineering
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Potential technologies to measure sugarcane quality in the field
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Potential technologies to measure sugarcane quality in the field." 2012 International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng 2012). Valencia, Spain 08 - 12 Jul 2012 Valencia, Spain.
Prediction of sugar content along the height of sugarcane internodes using VisNIR
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2012. "Prediction of sugar content along the height of sugarcane internodes using VisNIR." 2012 International Conference of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR-AgEng 2012). Valencia, Spain 08 - 12 Jul 2012 Valencia, Spain.
Development and evaluation of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis to target guinea grass in sugarcane
Rees, S. J., McCarthy, C. L., Baillie, C. P., Burgos-Artizzu, X. P. and Dunn, M. T.. 2011. "Development and evaluation of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis to target guinea grass in sugarcane." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 8 (2), pp. 97-106.
Monitoring the performance of covered anaerobic ponds in the treatment of abattoir waste
McCabe, B. K., Pittaway, P., Baillie, C. and Harris, P.. 2011. "Monitoring the performance of covered anaerobic ponds in the treatment of abattoir waste." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Transferring technology of measuring sugarcane quality from the laboratory to the field: what is possible?
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Chen, Guangnan, Jensen, Troy and Baillie, Craig. 2011. "Transferring technology of measuring sugarcane quality from the laboratory to the field: what is possible?" Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning
Nawi, Nazmi Mat, Jensen, Troy, Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2011. "The application of spectroscopic methods to predict sugarcane quality based on stalk cross-sectional scanning." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Energy, greenhouse gas emissions and irrigated agriculture
Baillie, C. P. and Chen, G.. 2011. "Energy, greenhouse gas emissions and irrigated agriculture." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Strategies for maximising sugarcane yield with limited water - improving irrigation system performance and crop response
Baillie, Craig Peter. 2008. Strategies for maximising sugarcane yield with limited water - improving irrigation system performance and crop response. Saarbrucken, Germany. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.
Assessing various techniques to monitor yield in sugarcane
Jensen, T. A., Fokkema, B. and Baillie, C.. 2011. "Assessing various techniques to monitor yield in sugarcane ." Banhazi, T., Saunders, C. and Hegarty, R. (ed.) SEAg 2011: Diverse Challenges, Innovative Solutions. Gold Coast, Australia 29 - 30 Sep 2011 Canberra, Australia.
Energy uses for cotton ginning in Australia
Ismail, Siti A., Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig and Symes, Troy. 2011. "Energy uses for cotton ginning in Australia." Biosystems Engineering. 109 (2), pp. 140-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.02.010
Machine vision-based weed spot spraying: a review and where next for sugarcane?
McCarthy, Cheryl, Rees, Steven and Baillie, Craig. 2010. "Machine vision-based weed spot spraying: a review and where next for sugarcane?" Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2010). Bundaberg, Australia 11 - 14 May 2010 Australia.
Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia
Ismail, S. A., Chen, G., Baillie, C. and Symes, T.. 2010. "Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec City, Canada.
Precision agriculture technologies - relevance and application to sugarcane production
Davis, R. J., Baillie, Craig and Schmidt, Erik. 2009. "Precision agriculture technologies - relevance and application to sugarcane production." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
Managing direct energy use now and in the future
Baillie, Craig Peter and Pyke, Bruce. 2010. "Managing direct energy use now and in the future." 15th Australian Cotton Conference: Fashioning the Future. Broadbeach, Qld, Australia 10 - 12 Aug 2010 Narrabri, NSW, Australia.
Assessment of sugarcane yield monitoring technology for precision agriculture
Jensen, T., Baillie, C., Bramley, R., Di Bella, L., Whiteing, C. and Davis, R.. 2010. "Assessment of sugarcane yield monitoring technology for precision agriculture." Bruce, R. C. (ed.) 32nd Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ASSCT 2010). Bundaberg, Australia 11 - 14 May 2010 Brisbane, Australia.
Energy and greenhouse gas emissions of Australian cotton: from field to fabric
Khabbaz, Borzoo Ghareei, Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2010. "Energy and greenhouse gas emissions of Australian cotton: from field to fabric." 17th World Congress of the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR 2010): Sustainable Biosystems Through Engineering. Quebec City, Canada 13 - 17 Jun 2010 Quebec, Canada.
Evaluation of energy usage for cotton ginning processes
Ismail, Siti Amni, Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig and Symes, Troy. 2009. "Evaluation of energy usage for cotton ginning processes." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Queensland.
Agricultural applications: energy uses and audits
Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2009. "Agricultural applications: energy uses and audits." Capehart, Barney L. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Energy Engineering and Technology. London, United Kingdom. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1-5
Development of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis and plant identification technology
Rees, Steven, McCarthy, Cheryl, Artizzu, X. P. B., Baillie, Craig and Dunn, Mark. 2009. "Development of a prototype precision spot spray system using image analysis and plant identification technology." Banhazi, T. M. and Saunders, C. (ed.) SEAg 2009: Agricultural Technologies In a Changing Climate. Brisbane, Australia 13 - 16 Sep 2009 Brisbane, Australia.
A methodology for on farm energy assessment
Baillie, Craig Peter and Chen, Guangnan. 2009. "A methodology for on farm energy assessment." 2009 RIRDC Life Cycle Assessment Workshop. Canberra, Australia 13 May 2009 Barton, A.C.T..
Evaluating on-farm energy performance in agriculture
Chen, Guangnan, Baillie, Craig Peter and Kupke, Paul. 2009. "Evaluating on-farm energy performance in agriculture." Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering. 7 (1), pp. 55-62.
A web-based system for scheduling irrigation in sugarcane
Inman-Bamber, N. G., Attard, S. J., Verrall, S. A., Webb, W. A. and Baillie, C.. 2007. "A web-based system for scheduling irrigation in sugarcane." 2007 International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists Congress. Durban, South Africa Mauritius.
Understanding irrigation decisions: from enterprise planning to the paddock
Montagu, Kelvin, Thomas, Ben, Thomas, Geoff, Christen, Evan, Hornbuckle, John, Baillie, Craig, Linehan, Chris, Smith, Peter, Gallo, Fabian, North, Sam, Meyer, Wayne, Stirzaker, Richard and Cornish, Peter. 2006. Understanding irrigation decisions: from enterprise planning to the paddock. Canberra, Australia. Land and Water Australia.
Forecasting water allocations for Bundaberg sugarcane farmers
Everingham, Yvette, Baillie, Craig, Inman-Bamber, Geoff and Baillie, Justine. 2008. "Forecasting water allocations for Bundaberg sugarcane farmers." Climate Research. 36 (3), pp. 231-239. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00743
Reducing energy input costs and associated greenhouse gas emissions in cotton
Baillie, Craig Peter and Chen, Guangnan. 2008. "Reducing energy input costs and associated greenhouse gas emissions in cotton." 14th Australian Cotton Conference: New Beginnings – Cotton in a Climate of Change. Gold Coast, Australia 12 - 14 Aug 2008 Narrabri, NSW, Australia.
Development of a framework and tool to assess on-farm energy uses of cotton production
Chen, Guangnan and Baillie, Craig. 2009. "Development of a framework and tool to assess on-farm energy uses of cotton production." Energy Conversion and Management. 50 (5), pp. 1256-1263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.01.022
Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods
Craig, Ian, Aravinthan, Vasantha, Baillie, Craig Peter, Beswick, Alan, Barnes, Geoff, Bradbury, Ron, Connell, Luke, Cooper, Paul, Fellows, Christopher, Fitzmaurice, Li, Foley, Joseph P., Hancock, Nigel, Lamb, David, Morrison, Pippa, Mossad, Ruth, Misra, R. K., Pittaway, Pam, Prime, Emma, Rees, Steve, ..., Turnbull, David. 2007. "Evaporation, seepage and water quality management in storage dams: a review of research methods." Environmental Health. 7 (3), pp. 84-97.
Strategies for maximising sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district
Baillie, Craig Peter. 2004. Strategies for maximising sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district. Masters Thesis Master of Engineering. University of Southern Queensland.
Strategies for maximizing sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district
Baillie, Craig Peter and Raine, Steven R.. 2005. "Strategies for maximizing sugarcane yield with limited water in the Bundaberg district." Annual Australian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (ANCID) Conference. Mildura, Australia 23 - 26 Oct 2005 Mildura, Australia.