Using the Norm Activation Model to Predict the Pro-Environmental Behaviors of Public Servants at the Central and Local Governments in Taiwan

Article


Fang, Wei-Ta, Chiang, Yi-Te, Ng, Eric and Lo, Jen-Chieh. 2019. "Using the Norm Activation Model to Predict the Pro-Environmental Behaviors of Public Servants at the Central and Local Governments in Taiwan." Sustainability. 11 (13), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133712
Article Title

Using the Norm Activation Model to Predict the Pro-Environmental Behaviors of Public Servants at the Central and Local Governments in Taiwan

ERA Journal ID41498
Article CategoryArticle
AuthorsFang, Wei-Ta (Author), Chiang, Yi-Te (Author), Ng, Eric (Author) and Lo, Jen-Chieh (Author)
Journal TitleSustainability
Journal Citation11 (13), pp. 1-20
Article Number3712
Number of Pages20
Year2019
PublisherMDPI AG
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
ISSN2071-1050
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133712
Web Address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/13/3712
Abstract

An understanding of the environmental value-action gap between public servants at the central and local governments is essential for the effective implementation of environmental policies, which is limited in the extant literature. This study has adopted the norm activation model to explore the pro-environmental behaviors of public servants at the central and local governments in Taiwan. A total of 7567 valid questionnaires were collected, and significant differences were evident between public servants at the central (n = 3400) and local (n = 4167) governments in personal norms, awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and pro-environmental behaviors. Findings revealed that personal norms were the key factors predicting pro-environmental behaviors of public servants at both the central and local governments. Results also indicated that the awareness of consequences by public servants at the central government had a direct effect on their pro-environmental behaviors, which in turn had a significant effect on their ascription of responsibility. In contrast, awareness of consequences by public servants at the local government had no significant direct effect on their pro-environmental behaviors and had only a weak positive effect on their ascription of responsibility.

Keywordsawareness of consequence, ascription of responsibility, central and local government, public servants, norm activation model
ANZSRC Field of Research 2020350699. Marketing not elsewhere classified
410499. Environmental management not elsewhere classified
Byline AffiliationsNational Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan
School of Management and Enterprise
Institution of OriginUniversity of Southern Queensland
Permalink -

https://research.usq.edu.au/item/q54zv/using-the-norm-activation-model-to-predict-the-pro-environmental-behaviors-of-public-servants-at-the-central-and-local-governments-in-taiwan

Download files


Published Version
Published version.pdf
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Anyone

  • 221
    total views
  • 185
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 7
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Influence of Landscape Preference and Place Attachment on Responsible Environmental Behavior — A Study of Taipei’s Guandu Nature Park Wetlands, Taiwan
Wu, Szu-Ju, Ng, Eric, Lin, Kai-Bo, Cheng, Yi-Hsin, LePage, Ben A. and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2023. "Influence of Landscape Preference and Place Attachment on Responsible Environmental Behavior — A Study of Taipei’s Guandu Nature Park Wetlands, Taiwan." Land. 12 (11). https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112036
Forest Dwellers’ Dependence on Forest Resources in Semi-Arid Environments
Mahmoudi, Beytollah, Ng, Eric, Mafi-Gholami, Davood and Eshaghi, Fatemeh. 2023. "Forest Dwellers’ Dependence on Forest Resources in Semi-Arid Environments." Sustainability. 15 (3), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032689
Evaluation of mangrove rehabilitation and afforestation in the southern coasts of Iran
Mahmoudi, Beytollah, Mafi-Gholami, Davood and Ng, Eric. 2022. "Evaluation of mangrove rehabilitation and afforestation in the southern coasts of Iran." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 277, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2022.108086
Examine the relationships between health-related quality of life, achievement motivation and job performance: the case of Taiwan hospitality industry
Ni, Wei-Ya, Ng, Eric, Chiang, Yi-Te, LePage, Ben A., Yang, Feng-Hua and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2022. "Examine the relationships between health-related quality of life, achievement motivation and job performance: the case of Taiwan hospitality industry." BMC Psychology. 10, pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-022-00884-8
Assessing the Effectiveness of Environmental Training for Diving Tourists Using the DEA Model
Huang, Chin-Wei, Ng, Eric, Fang, Wei-Ta and Lo, Li. 2022. "Assessing the Effectiveness of Environmental Training for Diving Tourists Using the DEA Model." Sustainability. 14 (3), pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031639
Effects of Parental Involvement in a Preschool-Based Eye Health Intervention Regarding Children’s Screen Use in China
Liu, Shu-Mei, Chang, Fong-Ching, Chen, Cheng-Yu, Shih, Shu-Fang, Meng, Bo, Ng, Eric, Hsu, Chia-Hsuan, Chiang, Yi-Te, Mao, Xiao-Jie, Yi, Ming-Yan, LePage, Ben and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2021. "Effects of Parental Involvement in a Preschool-Based Eye Health Intervention Regarding Children’s Screen Use in China." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18 (21), pp. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111330
Gendered factors associated with preventive behaviors and mental health among Chinese adults during the COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine
Liu, Shu-Mei, Shih, Shu-Fang, Meng, Bo, Zhen, Rui, Pan, Xiao-Ben, Ng, Eric, Hsu, Chia-Hsuan and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2021. "Gendered factors associated with preventive behaviors and mental health among Chinese adults during the COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine." Sustainability. 13 (19), pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910819
Understanding pro-environmental behavior of citizen science: an exploratory study of the Bird Survey in Taoyuan’s Farm Ponds Project
Chao, Shan-Hui, Jiang, Jinzhang, Wei, Kuan-Chu, Ng, Eric, Hsu, Chia-Hsuan, Chiang, Yi-Te and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2021. "Understanding pro-environmental behavior of citizen science: an exploratory study of the Bird Survey in Taoyuan’s Farm Ponds Project." Sustainability. 13 (9), pp. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095126
Determinants of pro-environmental behavior among excessive smartphone usage children and moderate smartphone usage children in Taiwan
Fang, Wei-Ta, Ng, Eric, Liu, Shu-Mei, Chiang, Yi-Te and Chang, Mei-Chuan. 2021. "Determinants of pro-environmental behavior among excessive smartphone usage children and moderate smartphone usage children in Taiwan." PEERJ. 9. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11635
Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model to Examine the Recycling Behavior of Taipei City Residents
Fang, Wei-Ta, Huang, Mei-Hsuan, Cheng, Bai-You, Chiu, Rong-Jeo, Chiang, Yi-Te, Hsu, Chun-Wei and Ng, Eric. 2021. "Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model to Examine the Recycling Behavior of Taipei City Residents." Sustainability. 13 (2), pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020490
Technology-Enhanced Learning for Graduate Students: Exploring the Correlation of Media Richness and Creativity of Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Communication
Chao, Shan-Hui, Jiang, Jinzhang, Hsu, Chia-Hsuan, Chiang, Yi-Te, Ng, Eric and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2020. "Technology-Enhanced Learning for Graduate Students: Exploring the Correlation of Media Richness and Creativity of Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Communication." Applied Sciences. 10 (5), pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051602
Locus of control: the mediation effect between emotional stability and pro-environmental behavior
Chiang, Yi-Te, Fang, Wei-Ta, Kaplan, Ulas and Ng, Eric. 2019. "Locus of control: the mediation effect between emotional stability and pro-environmental behavior." Sustainability. 11 (3), pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030820
The Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Protective Behavioral Intentions against PM2.5 in Parents of Young Children from Urban and Rural Beijing, China
Liu, Shumei, Chiang, Yi-Te, Tseng, Chie-Chien, Ng, Eric, Yeh, Gwo-Liang and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2018. "The Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Protective Behavioral Intentions against PM2.5 in Parents of Young Children from Urban and Rural Beijing, China." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (10), pp. 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102215
Determinants of pro-environmental behaviour among young and older farmers in Taiwan
Fang, Wei-Ta, Ng, Eric and Zhan, Yong-Shen. 2018. "Determinants of pro-environmental behaviour among young and older farmers in Taiwan." Sustainability. 10 (7), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072186
Environmental literacy on ecotourism: a study on student knowledge, attitude, and behavioral intentions in China and Taiwan
Fang, Wei-Ta, Lien, Ching-Yu, Huang, Yueh-Wen, Han, Guosheng, Shyu, Guey-Shin, Chou, Jui-Yu and Ng, Eric. 2018. "Environmental literacy on ecotourism: a study on student knowledge, attitude, and behavioral intentions in China and Taiwan." Sustainability. 10 (6), pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061886
A nationwide survey evaluating the environmental literacy of undergraduate students in Taiwan
Liang, Shih-Wu, Fang, Wei-Ta, Yeh, Shin-Cheng, Liu, Shiang-Yao, Tsai, Huei-Min, Chou, Jui-Yu and Ng, Eric. 2018. "A nationwide survey evaluating the environmental literacy of undergraduate students in Taiwan." Sustainability. 10 (6), pp. 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061730
Why China? Shanghai and food consumption trends
Ng, Eric, Sun, Ximing, Woodhead, Alice and Nugent, Timothy. 2016. Why China? Shanghai and food consumption trends. Toowoomba, Australia. Unpublished.
A self-evaluation system of quality planning for tourist attractions in Taiwan: an integrated AHP-Delphi approach from career professionals
Chen, Luan, Ng, Eric, Huang, Shyh-Chang and Fang, Wei-Ta. 2017. "A self-evaluation system of quality planning for tourist attractions in Taiwan: an integrated AHP-Delphi approach from career professionals." Sustainability. 9 (10). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101751
Normative beliefs, attitudes, and social norms: people reduce waste as an index of social relationships when spending leisure time
Fang, Wei-Ta, Ng, Eric, Wang, Ching-Ming and Hsu, Ming-Lin. 2017. "Normative beliefs, attitudes, and social norms: people reduce waste as an index of social relationships when spending leisure time." Sustainability. 9 (10). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101696
Physical outdoor activity versus indoor activity: their influence on environmental behaviors
Fang, Wei-Ta, Ng, Eric and Chang, Mei-Chuan. 2017. "Physical outdoor activity versus indoor activity: their influence on environmental behaviors." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070797
Differences between high and low performing exporting firms in a developing country
Sibanda, Khutula, Erwee, Ronel and Ng, Eric. 2011. "Differences between high and low performing exporting firms in a developing country." Zou, Shaoming and Fu, Huifen (ed.) International marketing: emerging markets. Emerald. pp. 207-228
An empirical investigation of the impact of commitment and trust on internal marketing
Ng, Eric, Fang, Wei-Ta and Lien, Ching-Yu. 2016. "An empirical investigation of the impact of commitment and trust on internal marketing." Journal of Relationship Marketing. 15 (1-2), pp. 35-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332667.2016.1158046
Conceptual model development of local cultural brand experiences
Lien, Ching-Yu and Ng, Eric. 2014. "Conceptual model development of local cultural brand experiences." 7th IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology (ICMIT 2014). Singapore 23 - 25 Sep 2014 Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMIT.2014.6942395
Establishing an influence model of green consumption behavior at night market: an exploratory study in Taiwan
Lien, Ching-Yu and Ng, Eric. 2014. "Establishing an influence model of green consumption behavior at night market: an exploratory study in Taiwan." Wang, Chih-Chien (ed.) International Conference on Marketing Studies (ICMS 2014). Taipei, Taiwan 18 - 20 Jun 2014 Taipei, Taiwan.
Discussion on study of knowledge creation, innovation ability and organizational performance for high-tech industries in Taiwan
Lien, Ching-Yu, Kuo, Fang-I and Ng, Eric. 2014. "Discussion on study of knowledge creation, innovation ability and organizational performance for high-tech industries in Taiwan." Wang, Chih-Chien (ed.) International Conference on Marketing Studies (ICMS 2014). Taipei, Taiwan 18 - 20 Jun 2014 Taipei County, Taiwan.
Impact of social media in service innovations: an empirical study on the Australian hotel industry
Ng, Eric and Lien, Ching-Yu. 2014. "Impact of social media in service innovations: an empirical study on the Australian hotel industry." Al-Hakim, Latif and Jin, Chen (ed.) Quality innovation: knowledge, theory, and practices. Hershey, PA. United States. IGI Global. pp. 390-405
The importance of trust in procurement practices and its impact on business performance: an empirical investigation from the perspective of the buyer-supplier Dyad
Dahwa, Masimba Phillip, Al-Hakim, Latif and Ng, Eric. 2013. "The importance of trust in procurement practices and its impact on business performance: an empirical investigation from the perspective of the buyer-supplier Dyad." Journal of Relationship Marketing. 12 (4), pp. 280-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332667.2013.846768
Making strategic decisions on B2B E-commerce models: an empirical study on Australian agribusinesses
Ng, Eric. 2013. "Making strategic decisions on B2B E-commerce models: an empirical study on Australian agribusinesses." International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies. 4 (1), pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.7903/ijecs.995
Strategies to improve retention of postgraduate business students in distance education courses: an Australian case
Carroll, David, Ng, Eric and Birch, Dawn. 2013. "Strategies to improve retention of postgraduate business students in distance education courses: an Australian case." Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. 14 (1), pp. 140-153.
The effect of inter-organization trust and dependency on e-procurement adoption: A case of Malaysian manufacturers
Al-Hakim, Latif, Nik Abdullah, Nik Ab Halim and Ng, Eric. 2012. "The effect of inter-organization trust and dependency on e-procurement adoption: A case of Malaysian manufacturers." Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations: the international journal of electronic commerce in modern organizations. 10 (2), pp. 40-60. https://doi.org/10.4018/jeco.2012040103
An empirical study on the success factors of supplier-distributor relationships
Ng, Eric. 2012. "An empirical study on the success factors of supplier-distributor relationships." Contemporary Management Research: an international journal. 8 (2), pp. 161-180.
Zimbabwean exporters: differences between high and low performers
Sibanda, Khutula, Erwee, Ronel and Ng, Eric. 2009. "Zimbabwean exporters: differences between high and low performers." Beaumont, Nicholas (ed.) 23rd Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference (ANZAM 2009). Melbourne, Australia 01 - 04 Dec 2009 Melbourne, Australia.
Adaptation of export marketing strategy in Zimbabwean export firms
Sibanda, Khutula, Erwee, Ronel and Ng, Eric. 2009. "Adaptation of export marketing strategy in Zimbabwean export firms." Beaumont, Nicholas (ed.) 23rd Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference (ANZAM 2009). Melbourne, Australia 01 - 04 Dec 2009 Melbourne, Australia.
Which B2B e-business model to adopt: the case of Taiwan agribusiness firms
Ng, Eric and Brown, Les. 2005. "Which B2B e-business model to adopt: the case of Taiwan agribusiness firms." Purchase, Sharon (ed.) Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (ANZMAC 2005): Broadening the Boundaries. Fremantle, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2005 Fremantle, Western Australia.
An exploratory study on consumers' selection of Australian regional travel agencies
Ng, Eric and Cassidy, Frances. 2005. "An exploratory study on consumers' selection of Australian regional travel agencies." Purchase, Sharon (ed.) Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (ANZMAC 2005): Broadening the Boundaries. Fremantle, Australia 05 - 07 Dec 2005 Fremantle, Western Australia.
Sustainable supplier-distributor relationships: insights from Australian agribusinesses
Ng, Eric. 2011. "Sustainable supplier-distributor relationships: insights from Australian agribusinesses." Fang, Wenchang (ed.) 2011 International Conference on Marketing Studies (ICMS 2011). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 10 - 11 Sep 2011 Taipei County, Taiwan.
An empirical investigation on the use of information sources for promoting healthy eating
Ng, Eric and Hastings, Kathy. 2011. "An empirical investigation on the use of information sources for promoting healthy eating." Contemporary Management Research: an international journal. 7 (1), pp. 45-66.
Factors that distinguish proactive versus reactive exporters: decisions by export firms in a developing country
Sibanda, Khutula, Erwee, Ronel and Ng, Eric. 2011. "Factors that distinguish proactive versus reactive exporters: decisions by export firms in a developing country." Journal of Global Marketing. 24 (1), pp. 69-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/08911762.2011.545722
Understanding B2B supplier selection relationships: the case of Taiwan agribusinesses
Ng, Eric. 2010. "Understanding B2B supplier selection relationships: the case of Taiwan agribusinesses." Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing. 17 (2), pp. 149-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/10517120902762492
An empirical investigation on the dyad perspective of buyer-seller relationships in Australian regional agribusinesses
Ng, Eric. 2009. "An empirical investigation on the dyad perspective of buyer-seller relationships in Australian regional agribusinesses." Contemporary Management Research: an international journal. 5 (3), pp. 287-299.
Retention and progression of postgraduate business students: An Australian perspective
Carroll, David, Ng, Eric and Birch, Dawn. 2009. "Retention and progression of postgraduate business students: An Australian perspective." Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. 24 (3), pp. 197-209.
An exploratory study on the use of information sources by consumers to select Australian regional travel agencies
Ng, Eric. 2009. "An exploratory study on the use of information sources by consumers to select Australian regional travel agencies." Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management. 18 (1), pp. 26-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368620801988990
A dyad perspective of buyer-seller relationships - the case of Taiwan agribusinesses
Ng, Eric. 2008. "A dyad perspective of buyer-seller relationships - the case of Taiwan agribusinesses." Spanjaard, Daniela, Denize, Sara and Sharma, Neeru (ed.) ANZMAC 2008: Shifting the Focus from Mainstream to Offbeat. Sydney, Australia 01 - 03 Dec 2008 Australia.
An exploratory study of Australian agribusiness organisations and their selection of e-business models for conducting B2B e-commerce
Ng, Eric, Lawley, Meredith and Summers, Jane. 2004. "An exploratory study of Australian agribusiness organisations and their selection of e-business models for conducting B2B e-commerce." 2004 Inaugural Academy of World Business, Marketing and Management Development Conference: The Challenge of Inter-Disciplinary Perspectives & Globalization in the 21st Century . Gold Coast, Australia 13 - 16 Jul 2004 Perth, Australia.
Which B2B e-business model: the case of Australian agribusiness organisations
Ng, Eric, Lawley, Meredith and Summers, Jane. 2003. "Which B2B e-business model: the case of Australian agribusiness organisations." Geursen, G., Kennedy, R. and Tolo, M. (ed.) ANZMAC 2003: Celebration of Ehrenberg and Bass: Marketing Discoveries, Knowledge and Contribution. Adelaide, Australia 01 - 03 Dec 2003 Melbourne, Australia.
Building quality international channel partner relations: a dyadic perspective
Hastings, Kathy, Brown, Les, Ng, Eric and Cassidy, Frances. 2006. "Building quality international channel partner relations: a dyadic perspective." Ali, Yunus and van Dessel, Maria (ed.) ANZMAC 2006: Advancing Theory, Maintaining Relevance. Brisbane Australia 04 - 06 Dec 2006 Brisbane, Australia.
An exploratory study on consumer travel agency information sources: an Australian regional analysis
Ng, Eric, Cassidy, Frances and Brown, Les. 2006. "An exploratory study on consumer travel agency information sources: an Australian regional analysis." 2006 International Conference on Business and Information (BAI 2006). Singapore 12 - 14 Jul 2006 Taiwan.
Supplier selection in industrial supply-chains: the case of Taiwanese agribusiness
Ng, Eric, Brown, Les, Hastings, Kathy and Cassidy, Frances. 2006. "Supplier selection in industrial supply-chains: the case of Taiwanese agribusiness." Ali, Yunus and van Dessel, Maria (ed.) ANZMAC 2006: Advancing Theory, Maintaining Relevance. Brisbane Australia 04 - 06 Dec 2006 Brisbane, Australia.
Exploring the major factors influencing consumer selection of travel agencies in a regional setting
Ng, Eric, Cassidy, Frances and Brown, Les. 2006. "Exploring the major factors influencing consumer selection of travel agencies in a regional setting." Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 13 (1), pp. 75-84.
Types of B2B e-business model commonly used: an empirical study on Australian agribusiness firms
Ng, Eric. 2005. "Types of B2B e-business model commonly used: an empirical study on Australian agribusiness firms." Australasian Agribusiness Review. 13, pp. 1-13.
An empirical framework developed for selecting B2B e-business models: the case of Australian agribusiness firms
Ng, Eric. 2005. "An empirical framework developed for selecting B2B e-business models: the case of Australian agribusiness firms." Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing. 20 (4/5), pp. 218-225. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620510603891